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The Counter-Reformation . Chapter 15 Section 4. Key Terms. Counter-Reformation Jesuits Ignatius of Loyola Council of Trent Charles Borromeo Francis of Sales Teresa of Avila. Reforming the Catholic Church. Protestants not the only ones dissatisfied Catholics also upset

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the counter reformation

The Counter-Reformation

Chapter 15

Section 4

key terms
Key Terms
  • Counter-Reformation
  • Jesuits
  • Ignatius of Loyola
  • Council of Trent
  • Charles Borromeo
  • Francis of Sales
  • Teresa of Avila
reforming the catholic church
Reforming the Catholic Church
  • Protestants not the only ones dissatisfied
  • Catholics also upset
  • Counter-Reformation- series of reform in the Catholic Church
early reformers
Early Reformers
  • Girolamo Savonarola- monk preached fiery sermons against the church in the 1400’s
  • Called on church to melt down its gold and silver to buy bread for the poor
early reformers1
Early Reformers
  • Convinced people to burn jewelry and trinkets
  • “The bonfire of the vanities”
  • First allowed by the pope
  • Pope alexander excommunicated Savonarola
  • 1498 executed in Florence
  • Jesuits- society of Jesus, religious order to reform the church
  • Ignatius of Loyola founded Jesuits in 1534
    • Nobleman, soldier
    • While recovering from an injury read books on saints
    • Became a soldier of God
  • Father general- ran it like a military institution
    • Emphasized obedience to the church
    • Concentrated on education to combat the Protestants
    • Established missions, school, and universities
    • Effective organization, gained ground on Protestants
council of trent
Council of Trent
  • Paul Pope III in 1545 called the council
  • Need to redefine the doctrines of the church
  • Examined criticisms by the Protestants and Catholics
  • Clarified Catholic teachings on certain points
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Council of Trent
  • Reforms addressed the corruption of the clergy
  • Training of priests
  • Financial abuses
  • Indulgences were abolished
  • Rejected Protestant’s emphasis on self-discipline and individual faith
council of trent2
Council of Trent
  • Church could help believers achieve salvation
  • Using mystery and magnificent ceremonies to inspire faith
  • Consistent with the belief of millions
  • Majority of Europeans remain Catholic
council of trent3
Council of Trent
  • No compromise between Catholics and Protestants
  • Bold action boost to Catholicism in Poland
  • Other parts of Europe return to the Church
  • Catholics felt renewed energy
council of trent4
Council of Trent
  • By 1700 Jesuits operated 699 colleges in Italy, Germany, and other places
  • Future leaders educated in Jesuit schools
  • Order had an influence over public affairs
  • Worked in India, China, and Japan
reforming catholics
Reforming Catholics
  • Charles Borromeo Archbishop of Milan
    • Decisive steps to implement reform
    • Build new schools to educate priests
  • Francis of Sales
    • Founded a religious order for women
    • Returned Calvinists to the church through missionary work
women and the church
Women and the Church
  • Women took on more roles
  • Before Renaissance they lived in secluded convents
  • 1543-Italian nun Angela Merici began Saint Ursula Company for teaching girls
women and the church1
Women and the Church
  • Jane of Chantal formed an order to teach girls to become teachers
  • Schools throughout Europe
  • Work denounced by anti-Jesuits and the church as dangerous
women and the church2
Women and the Church
  • Teresa of Avila
    • Age 20 ran away to a convent
    • Thought rules were too lax
    • Followed her own strict rules fasting, sleeping, and prayer
    • Reformed the Carmelite order
    • Had visions of Christ
    • Her faith inspired many to stay in the Church
the inquisition
The Inquisition
  • Roman Inquisition in 1542 to fight Reformation
  • Popes increased the Inquisition’s powers
  • Accused Protestants of witchcraft and breaking the law
  • Spanish monarchs set up a tougher one in 1478
the inquisition1
The Inquisition
  • Used it to convert Jews, Muslims and later Protestants
  • Index of Forbidden Books- to stamp put rebellion
    • People not to read books on the list
    • Lose their souls
    • Torture and execution damaged the Church’s image
changes in religion
Changes in Religion
  • Renewed zeal spread Catholic faith to other continents
  • North America- and elsewhere softened the harsh colonial rule
  • Protestants broke away from the Catholic church and formed many factions
changes in religion1
Changes in Religion
  • Discord and rifts between Protestants
  • Luther and followers denounced Anabaptists and Zwingli’s followers
  • John Calvin disapproved of some of Luther’s ideas
  • Luther’s these opened the door to religious freedom
persecution and hysteria
Persecution and Hysteria
  • Luther and Catholics viewed Jews as heretics
  • Spain forced conversion or they had to leave
  • Jews resettled in eastern and southern Europe
  • Some areas they were forced to live in certain areas
  • Called a ghetto
persecution and hysteria1
Persecution and Hysteria
  • Ghettos were walled and their gates closed at night
  • People feared witches roamed the land
    • Fears increased during hard times
    • Witches were rounded up and tried
    • 1580-1660 thousands tried and executed as witches
    • Mostly women and the poor
political effects
Political Effects
  • Rising sense of nationalism
  • Protestant Reformation encouraged formation of independent states and nations
  • Rulers and merchants wanted less church involvement
  • Political power separated from churches
italian wars
Italian Wars
  • Italy bounced between two powers
  • Sack of Rome by Spaniards and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1527
  • Italian wars ended in 1559
  • Expanded the Italian Renaissance
italian wars1
Italian Wars
  • Artist from Italy fled north bringing new techniques
  • Troops returned carrying new ideas
conflicts among germans
Conflicts among Germans
  • Unhappy with high taxes, lack of power, new ideas
  • Peasants unhappy
  • Reformation preachers were backing idea of freedom
  • 1524 tens of thousands German peasants stormed monasteries
conflict among germans
Conflict among Germans
  • Martin Luther accused of the unrest denounced it
  • Luther’s refusal to back peasants the Reformation spilling Into a social revolution
  • Holy Roman Emperor Charles V wanted to turn back Protestantism
conflict among germans1
Conflict among Germans
  • 1546 war against Luther’s German princes
  • Peace of Augsburg signed in 1555
    • Had religious compromise
    • Allowed each prince to pick their religion
    • Subjects had no say in the choices
conflict between religions
Conflict between Religions
  • France the Huguenots, Protestant minority fought the Catholics
  • Fighting ended when their leader became Catholic
  • Conversion led to political stability
  • 1598 Edict of Nantes granted religious freedom to Protestants