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The Counter-Reformation . Chapter 15 Section 4. Key Terms. Counter-Reformation Jesuits Ignatius of Loyola Council of Trent Charles Borromeo Francis of Sales Teresa of Avila. Reforming the Catholic Church. Protestants not the only ones dissatisfied Catholics also upset

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The Counter-Reformation

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The counter reformation

The Counter-Reformation

Chapter 15

Section 4


Key terms

Key Terms

  • Counter-Reformation

  • Jesuits

  • Ignatius of Loyola

  • Council of Trent

  • Charles Borromeo

  • Francis of Sales

  • Teresa of Avila


Reforming the catholic church

Reforming the Catholic Church

  • Protestants not the only ones dissatisfied

  • Catholics also upset

  • Counter-Reformation- series of reform in the Catholic Church


Early reformers

Early Reformers

  • Girolamo Savonarola- monk preached fiery sermons against the church in the 1400’s

  • Called on church to melt down its gold and silver to buy bread for the poor


Early reformers1

Early Reformers

  • Convinced people to burn jewelry and trinkets

  • “The bonfire of the vanities”

  • First allowed by the pope

  • Pope alexander excommunicated Savonarola

  • 1498 executed in Florence


Jesuits

Jesuits

  • Jesuits- society of Jesus, religious order to reform the church

  • Ignatius of Loyola founded Jesuits in 1534

    • Nobleman, soldier

    • While recovering from an injury read books on saints

    • Became a soldier of God


Jesuits1

Jesuits

  • Father general- ran it like a military institution

    • Emphasized obedience to the church

    • Concentrated on education to combat the Protestants

    • Established missions, school, and universities

    • Effective organization, gained ground on Protestants


Council of trent

Council of Trent

  • Paul Pope III in 1545 called the council

  • Need to redefine the doctrines of the church

  • Examined criticisms by the Protestants and Catholics

  • Clarified Catholic teachings on certain points


Council of trent1

Council of Trent

  • Reforms addressed the corruption of the clergy

  • Training of priests

  • Financial abuses

  • Indulgences were abolished

  • Rejected Protestant’s emphasis on self-discipline and individual faith


Council of trent2

Council of Trent

  • Church could help believers achieve salvation

  • Using mystery and magnificent ceremonies to inspire faith

  • Consistent with the belief of millions

  • Majority of Europeans remain Catholic


Council of trent3

Council of Trent

  • No compromise between Catholics and Protestants

  • Bold action boost to Catholicism in Poland

  • Other parts of Europe return to the Church

  • Catholics felt renewed energy


Council of trent4

Council of Trent

  • By 1700 Jesuits operated 699 colleges in Italy, Germany, and other places

  • Future leaders educated in Jesuit schools

  • Order had an influence over public affairs

  • Worked in India, China, and Japan


Reforming catholics

Reforming Catholics

  • Charles Borromeo Archbishop of Milan

    • Decisive steps to implement reform

    • Build new schools to educate priests

  • Francis of Sales

    • Founded a religious order for women

    • Returned Calvinists to the church through missionary work


Women and the church

Women and the Church

  • Women took on more roles

  • Before Renaissance they lived in secluded convents

  • 1543-Italian nun Angela Merici began Saint Ursula Company for teaching girls


Women and the church1

Women and the Church

  • Jane of Chantal formed an order to teach girls to become teachers

  • Schools throughout Europe

  • Work denounced by anti-Jesuits and the church as dangerous


Women and the church2

Women and the Church

  • Teresa of Avila

    • Age 20 ran away to a convent

    • Thought rules were too lax

    • Followed her own strict rules fasting, sleeping, and prayer

    • Reformed the Carmelite order

    • Had visions of Christ

    • Her faith inspired many to stay in the Church


The inquisition

The Inquisition

  • Roman Inquisition in 1542 to fight Reformation

  • Popes increased the Inquisition’s powers

  • Accused Protestants of witchcraft and breaking the law

  • Spanish monarchs set up a tougher one in 1478


The inquisition1

The Inquisition

  • Used it to convert Jews, Muslims and later Protestants

  • Index of Forbidden Books- to stamp put rebellion

    • People not to read books on the list

    • Lose their souls

    • Torture and execution damaged the Church’s image


Changes in religion

Changes in Religion

  • Renewed zeal spread Catholic faith to other continents

  • North America- and elsewhere softened the harsh colonial rule

  • Protestants broke away from the Catholic church and formed many factions


Changes in religion1

Changes in Religion

  • Discord and rifts between Protestants

  • Luther and followers denounced Anabaptists and Zwingli’s followers

  • John Calvin disapproved of some of Luther’s ideas

  • Luther’s these opened the door to religious freedom


Persecution and hysteria

Persecution and Hysteria

  • Luther and Catholics viewed Jews as heretics

  • Spain forced conversion or they had to leave

  • Jews resettled in eastern and southern Europe

  • Some areas they were forced to live in certain areas

  • Called a ghetto


Persecution and hysteria1

Persecution and Hysteria

  • Ghettos were walled and their gates closed at night

  • People feared witches roamed the land

    • Fears increased during hard times

    • Witches were rounded up and tried

    • 1580-1660 thousands tried and executed as witches

    • Mostly women and the poor


Political effects

Political Effects

  • Rising sense of nationalism

  • Protestant Reformation encouraged formation of independent states and nations

  • Rulers and merchants wanted less church involvement

  • Political power separated from churches


Italian wars

Italian Wars

  • Italy bounced between two powers

  • Sack of Rome by Spaniards and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1527

  • Italian wars ended in 1559

  • Expanded the Italian Renaissance


Italian wars1

Italian Wars

  • Artist from Italy fled north bringing new techniques

  • Troops returned carrying new ideas


Conflicts among germans

Conflicts among Germans

  • Unhappy with high taxes, lack of power, new ideas

  • Peasants unhappy

  • Reformation preachers were backing idea of freedom

  • 1524 tens of thousands German peasants stormed monasteries


Conflict among germans

Conflict among Germans

  • Martin Luther accused of the unrest denounced it

  • Luther’s refusal to back peasants the Reformation spilling Into a social revolution

  • Holy Roman Emperor Charles V wanted to turn back Protestantism


Conflict among germans1

Conflict among Germans

  • 1546 war against Luther’s German princes

  • Peace of Augsburg signed in 1555

    • Had religious compromise

    • Allowed each prince to pick their religion

    • Subjects had no say in the choices


Conflict between religions

Conflict between Religions

  • France the Huguenots, Protestant minority fought the Catholics

  • Fighting ended when their leader became Catholic

  • Conversion led to political stability

  • 1598 Edict of Nantes granted religious freedom to Protestants


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