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Chapter 3. Morphology. Grammar Safari (xtra credit). Find a morphemically creative word From a naturally occurring source Tell us: What the word means How you know (what each morpheme means) Tree it (we’ll see how to do this later) Example: On next slide… . Safari Example.

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Chapter 3

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Chapter 3 l.jpg

Chapter 3

Morphology


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Grammar Safari (xtra credit)

  • Find a morphemically creative word

    • From a naturally occurring source

    • Tell us:

      • What the word means

      • How you know (what each morpheme means)

      • Tree it (we’ll see how to do this later)

  • Example:

    • On next slide…


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Safari Example

  • Word:

    • Bugetarian

  • Meaning:

    • One who eats only bugs

  • How I know

    • Bug= “root

    • -etary= having to do with

    • -ian= one who does…(compare “vegetarian)

  • Tree:

Noun

(Noun)

-etary(N or Adj)

-ian(N)

Bug(root)


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What’s Missing?

was very chalant, despite my efforts to appear gruntled and consolate. I was furling my wieldy umbrella… when I saw her… She was a descript person… Her hair was kempt, her clothing shevelled, and she moved in a gainly way.

What’s the pattern in the missing stuff?

I


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Little Sounds Mean a Lot

  • What are functions of prefixes & suffixes?

    • Prefixes/Suffixes = Morphemes

  • Make a list –

    • List as many as you can in 1 minute

    • Which morphemes change the meaning?

    • What do the others do?


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Formal Definition: Morpheme

  • Smallest unit of meaning in a language

  • Not necessarily independent

  • Creative potential

  • Each has only one meaning


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Just Do it: Creating Words

  • Define “Blog” (noun, verb)

  • Define “Blogger” (noun only)

  • Create an ADJ = “like an opinionated posting”

    • “That sounds a little ____________________.”

  • Create another ADJ

    • “I don’t trust her ______________ pronouncements.”

  • Create an ADV = “as a blogger would do something”

    • “Jack always writes so ___________________.”

  • Create a NOUN = “the act of a person who blogs”

    • “She’s doing a bit of _________________”

  • In the New York Times William Safire wrote about the “Blogiverse” What do you suppose he meant?

    Exercise 3.1


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Words like “Blogosphere” are:

  • Dumb – they should always be avoided

  • OK in comics strips – not in ‘real life’

  • ‘Avante Guarde’ – to be used by the daring

  • Great – use them whenever possible


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Extremely Morph-y

  • Antidisestablishmentarianism

  • How many morphemes are there?

    • 3

    • 5

    • 7

    • 9

    • None of the above


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Extremely Morph-y

  • Antidisestablishmentarianism

  • Identify the morphemes…

  • What does each morpheme mean?

    • Which are bound?

    • Which are free?


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Derivational Morpheme

  • A morpheme which causes a word to change in meaning &/or grammatical category

    • (anti-dis-establish-ment-ari-an-ism)

      • anti= meaning change

      • dis= meaning change

      • establish= free root

      • ment= grammatical change (V  N)

      • ari (ary)= grammatical change (N  Adj)

      • (i)an= grammatical change (Adj  N)

      • ism= meaning change


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List Some Others…

  • Bound Morphemes(No need to make real words…)

  • Free Morphemes(No need to make real words…)


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Did You Get It?

  • How many morphemes are in

    “Unexpectedly”

  • 1

  • 3

  • 5

  • 7


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Did You Get This, Too?

  • How many BOUND morphemes are in

    “Destandardize”

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4


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Tree: Unexpectedly

ADV

ADJ

VERB

VERB

expect(verb)

ed(past)

ly(adj adv)

Un(not)


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You Try It: Destandardize

verb

verb

noun

ize(NV)

Stand(verb)

ard(VN)

De(not)


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Do On Your Own

  • Outside of class…

    • Exercise 3.2 p. 40

    • Exercise 3.3p. 40 – 42

    • Exercise 3.4p. 42

      The chart at the bottom of page 41 may be helpful


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Find Your Own

  • Using your Grammar & Communication paper, find a word with:

    • At least 4 morphemes

    • At least 2 FREE morphemes

    • At least 2 suffix morphemes


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Questions

Before we move on…?


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Tell Me About It…

  • Manching my swiltestfresnep all day, the tunkles are bronking to murple a set of swazzlingphubren!

  • Label the Part of Speech (POS) of the underlined words… (N, V, ADJ, ADV)

  • What morphemes helped you decide?


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Think About It

  • List the morphemes that we saw above

  • Are these derivational morphemes?

  • What do these morphemes do?

    • Put the morphemes on other words

    • Put the new words in sentences

    • Think about what you see…


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Key Vocab:

Inflectional Morpheme

  • A morpheme that marks words for grammatical class WITHOUTchanging the basic meaning


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Inflection

In English:

  • Nouns Plural: ___ , Possessive: ___

  • VerbsTense/Person ___, ___, ___, ___

  • Adj/AdvComparative/Superlative ___, ___


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English Inflectional Morphemes


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Inflection (FYI)

  • Marking a word for a grammatical class

    • Plural

    • Possessive

    • Tense

    • Contrast

    • Gender

    • Gram. Class

    • Person’s Role

    • Etc.

}

English

}

Other Languages


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Did You Get It?

  • How many morphemes are in:

    The cakes were eaten

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4


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Did You Get It?

  • How many morphemes are in:

    The cakes were eaten

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4


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Did You Get It?

  • How many morphemes are in:

    The cakes were eaten

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4


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Did You Get It? - Challenge

  • How many morphemes are in

    photographers’

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

  • 5


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Find as Many of the Eight Inflections as You Can…

… in your G & C paper


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Just Do It

  • Exercises

    • 3.5 (p. 48-49)

    • 3.6 (p. 49)


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What’s the function of the present tense here?

  • The birds are watching the tree go away now

  • It’s habitual – the tree disappears every week

  • It’s currently relevant - The birds just noticed

  • This example does not use the present tense


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And another exercise…

… related point:


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I Told You Earlier

  • Each morpheme as only one meaning

  • But what about:

    • dogs

    • writes

  • And on the flip side…. (next slide)

They are kind of like…


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Allomorphs

  • Readable

  • Readability

  • Incredible

  • Unbelievable

  • Other pairs?


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Zero Allomorph

  • Verb

    • I cut the cards (yesterday or everyday)

    • ______ (another example?)

  • Noun

    • Deer (1 or ‘more than one’)

    • ______ (another example?)


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More Funky Stuff…

…on the next slide


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Functional Shift

  • Each of these words can fill 2 (or more) functions

    RecordCapFlyHeavy

    Result SeatFinish Yellow

  • What functions does each word fill?

  • How does the meaning shift for each?

  • Now add morphemes… What can you create?

    Exercise 3.7


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Did You Get It? - Challenge

  • How many Parts of Speech (POS) can we make using morphemes added to:

    High

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

    Show each POS in a sentence…


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Derivation vs. Inflection

See also chart on page 55


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Find & Correct the Error

  • As I read the article by Julia P. Stanley on Homosexual Slang, a lot of things came as a surprise, however something’s were familiar because of my relationship with homosexual peers.

  • Hint: Look at inflectional morphemes


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Find & Correct Again

  • After gathering drawings of embryonic fish, salamander, hog, calf, rabbit, and human, Haeckel discovered that they all appeared similar in the earliest stages of development.

    • How does morphology matter here?


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Any Morphological Errors…

… in your G & C paper?


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Do It

  • Exercise 3.11

    • Morphing & Unmorphables (p. 56)

  • Review Exercises

    • pp. 57-58

      NOTE: All the exercises in the text are relevant & good

      – even those that aren’t listed in the slides…


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For “Tomorrow”

  • TPQ on Chapter 3

  • Begin reading Chapter 4


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