Ship design engineering
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Ship Design & Engineering. Introduction. Principles of ship design Basic ship structure, including forces Ship structural elements Compartment Numbering Submarine Design Piping Systems & Coloring. Basic Design Considerations. Operation Employment

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Ship Design & Engineering

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Ship design engineering

Ship Design& Engineering


Introduction

Introduction

  • Principles of ship design

  • Basic ship structure, including forces

  • Ship structural elements

  • Compartment Numbering

  • Submarine Design

  • Piping Systems & Coloring


Basic design considerations

Basic Design Considerations

  • Operation Employment

    • Mission: task or job ship is designed to perform

    • Armament: measure of offensive & defensive power of ship

    • Protection: features designed to thwart or minimize destructiveness of enemy attack

    • Maneuverability: rapid course/speed changes

    • Cruising range: distance a ship can travel at cruising speed without refuel/reprovision


Basic design considerations1

Basic Design Considerations

  • Structural design & seaworthiness

    • Stability: ability of ship to return to an upright position when heeled over

    • Displacement: measured in tons of water

    • Freeboard: vertical distance between top of hull and water line

    • Hull shape

    • Beam


Basic forces acting on ships

Basic Forces Acting on Ships

  • Stress

    • Load per unit area (psi)

    • Tension, compression, shear, torsion

  • Strain

    • Deformation per unit length

  • Longitudinal Bending

    • Sagging

    • Hogging


Stress

Stress

  • Def’n: load a member is carrying per unit area (psi)

  • Types:

    • Tension: axial stress exerted by pulling

    • Compression: axial stress exerted by pressure on ends

    • Shear: equal but opposite forces at right angle

    • Torsion: stress caused by twisting motion


Strain

Strain

  • Def’n: the distortion/deformation per unit length as a result of stress

  • Measured in inches per inch (in/in)


Sagging

Sagging

  • Condition where ship is supported more at its ends

  • Compression of main deck

  • Tension of the bottom/keel


Hogging

Hogging

  • Condition where ship is supported more in its middle

  • Tension of main deck

  • Compression of bottom/keel


Ship structural elements

Ship Structural Elements

  • Keel

    • Centerline backbone of ship

    • Runs the length of the ship

  • Framing

    • Ribs of ship, provide structural strength -> define form of ship

    • Types:

      • Transverse (extend outward from keel)

      • Longitudinal (parallel to keel, run length of ship)


Ship structural elements1

Ship Structural Elements

  • Bottom

    • Cellular region comprised of keel & framing

  • Plating

    • Skin over framework -> rectangular steel plates welded together


Ship structural elements2

Ship Structural Elements

  • Decks

    • “Floors” of a ship (sometimes called “levels”)

    • Horizontal partitions that form tiers

    • Main deck is uppermost complete deck

  • Bulkhead

    • “Walls” of a ship

    • Horizontal partitions that form compartments

    • Can either be structural or non-structural (joiner)


Ship structural elements3

Ship Structural Elements


Ship structural elements4

Ship Structural Elements

  • Doors

    • Passage between spaces on SAME level

    • Can be Water-Tight (sealed with “dogs”)

      • Individually acting v. Quick-acting

  • Hatches

    • Passage between spaces on DIFFERENT levels

    • Most are water-tight boundaries


Compartment numbering

Compartment Numbering

  • System used for ships built after 1949

  • 4 main parts

    • Deck

    • Frame

    • Compartment

    • Use

ex:5 – 32 – 0 – E

DeckFrameCompartmentUse


Compartment numbering1

Compartment Numbering

  • Deck:

    • Meaning: “Space is located on this deck”

    • Upper levels are 01,02… successively from main

    • Main deck is 1

    • Lower decks are 2,3,4… successively from main


Compartment numbering2

Compartment Numbering

  • Frame:

    • Meaning: “Forward boundary of compartment is on or immediately aft of this frame number”

    • Sequential number given to transverse frames fore to aft


Compartment numbering3

Compartment Numbering

  • Compartment:

    • Indicates position of compartment relative to centerline

    • Centerline compartments are “0”

    • Numbers follow in succession from centerline outboard

    • Even numbers for Port side (2,4,6, …)

    • Odd numbers for Starboard side (1,3,5, …)

  • … 6 4 2 0 1 3 5 …

  • PortCenterlineStarboard


Compartment numbering4

Compartment Numbering

  • Use:

    • Letter that designates primary use of the space

    • Examples

      • “A”: Supply & Storage

      • “C”: Control (ship control or fire control)

      • “E”: Engineering

      • “F”: Fuel tank

      • “L”: Living

      • “M”: Ammunition

      • “T”: Trunk

      • “V”: Void

      • “W”: Water tank


Submarine design

Submarine Design

  • Hull (made of HY-80 or HY-90 steel)

    • Watertight envelope designed to resist submergence pressure at CRUSH DEPTH

    • Inner hull (pressure hull)

    • Outer hull (non-pressure hull)


Submarine design1

Submarine Design

  • Structural Members

    • Similar to surface ship but rounded for submarine hull shape and THICKER

    • All levels have expansion joints (varying submergence pressures)


Piping valve numbering systems

White

Yellow

Purple

Dark Gray

Light Gray/Tan

Blue

Light Blue

Orange

Steam

Oil

JP-5

HP Air

LP Air

Chillwater

Feedwater

Hydraulics

Piping & Valve Numbering Systems

  • Numbering system for valves similar to that for compartments (ie: MS-1, MS-2, etc.)


Questions comments concerns

Questions, Comments, Concerns?


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