AP Chemistry – Solutions
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 7

AP Chemistry – Solutions PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 92 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

AP Chemistry – Solutions. solution : homogeneous mixture; solid, liquid, or gas. solvent : substance present in the greatest amount. solute : also present;. there might be more than one. +. –. –. –. –. –. –. +. +. +. +. +. +. H. H. H. H. H. H. H. H. H. H. H. H. –. –.

Download Presentation

AP Chemistry – Solutions

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Ap chemistry solutions

AP Chemistry – Solutions


Ap chemistry solutions

solution: homogeneous mixture; solid, liquid, or gas

solvent: substance present in the greatest amount

solute: also present;

there might be more than one


Ap chemistry solutions

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

+

+

+

+

+

+

O

O

O

O

O

O

Intermolecular forces (IMFs) operate between

solvent and solute particles. Solutions form

when solute-solvent IMFs are comparable

to solute-solute IMFs.

Solvation/hydration

= “glomming”

d+

d+

solvent particles

“pull” solute ions

from the crystal

--

d–

solvent particles surround solute

particles (if solvent is H2O, we say “hydration”)

-- then solvation:


Ap chemistry solutions

(3) above isn’t very (–) for

oil and water and, with (1)

and (2) requiring energy

input, this doesn’t form a solution.

Energy Changes and Solution Formation

(1) solute particles are separated

from the crystal lattice;

DH1 > 0

(2) solvent particles separate to

make room for solute particles;

DH2 > 0

(3) solvent and solute particles are

attracted to each other;

DH3 < 0

S = DHsoln

--

If DHsoln is too (+)

(i.e., too endo),

soln won’t form.


Ap chemistry solutions

The enthalpy of solution formation (i.e., DHsoln) for

ammonium nitrate is (+), but the system’s disorder

increases from NH4NO3(s) to NH4+(aq) + NO3–(aq), and

so solution formation is still spontaneous.

For polar/nonpolar, (3) isn’t (–) enough, and

(1) and (2) lead to a DHsoln that is too (+).

Spontaneous processes tend to occur...

exo

(A) when DHsoln is (–), (i.e., ____)

(B) when the disorder of the system increases

** NOTE:

(B) is MORE influential in

determining whether or not

soln forms


Ap chemistry solutions

Sometimes it is not readily apparent whether a solution has been formed or whether a chemical reaction took place. To help you decide, consider

the following:

If the product is evaporated to dryness, a solution would give you what you started with.

e.g.,

NaCl(s) + H2O(l)  NaCl(aq)

(SOLN)

(RXN)

Ni(s) + 2 HCl(aq)  NiCl2(aq) + H2(g)


Ap chemistry solutions

solution

crystallization

A saturated solution of NaCl,

in which the rates of solution

and crystallization are equal.

Solubility

Crystallization is the opposite of the solution process.

SOLUTE + SOLVENT SOLUTION

-- When the rates of solution and crystallization

are equal, __________ is established.

equilibrium


  • Login