Fundamentals of nursing
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FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING. NURS 102 2 Credits. OBJECTIVES. By the end of the lecture student should be able to: Define nursing terminologies 2. Discuss character qualities of a nurse 3. Explain grooming pertaining to nursing. OBJECTIVES CONT’D. Discuss qualities of a good nurse

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FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING

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Fundamentals of nursing

FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING

NURS 102

2 Credits


Objectives

OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lecture student should be able to:

  • Define nursing terminologies

    2. Discuss character qualities of a nurse

    3. Explain grooming pertaining to nursing


Objectives cont d

OBJECTIVES CONT’D

  • Discuss qualities of a good nurse

  • List the roles nurses perform

  • Enumerate and discus members of the

    health team

    7. Identify various ranks in the field of nursing


Definition of terms

DEFINITION OF TERMS

NURSING

  • The concept of nursing is from a Latin word NUTRICA which means to nurture or nourish

  • Florence Nightingale also wrote that nursing is “the act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery” (Nightingale, 1860).


Definitions cont d

DEFINITIONS CONT’D

  • The action taken by nurses on behalf of or in conjunction with the person and goals or outcomes of nursing actions. Nursing actions are typically viewed as a systematic process of assessment, labeling, planning, intervention and evaluation


Definitions cont d1

DEFINITIONS CONT’D

NURSE

  • A person formally educated and trained in the care of the infirmed or the sick/disabled

  • Profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families and communities so they may attain, maintain or recover optimal health and quality of life


Definitions cont d2

DEFINITIONS CONT’D

  • “The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the strength, will, or knowledge, and to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible” (Henderson, 1966, p.3).


Definitions cont d3

DEFINITIONS CONT’D

Profession

  • A vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply objective service to others

  • Formal qualifications based on education, apprenticeship and examination

  • Regulatory bodies- admit and discipline members


Definitions cont d4

DEFINITIONS CONT’D

Professional

  • Member of a profession

  • Standard of education and training that prepares members of the profession with particular knowledge and skills necessary to perform that function

  • Professional standards and code of ethics


Definitions cont d5

DEFINITIONS CONT’D

Philosophy

  • Knowledge level which specifies the definitions of the metaparadigm concepts in each of the conceptual models of nursing.

  • Nightingale is considered philosophical approach

  • Out of these philosophies theory maybe formalized


Definitions cont d6

DEFINITIONS CONT’D

Vocation

  • An occupation to which a person is specially drawn or for which he/ she is suited, trained or qualified


Definitions cont d7

DEFINITIONS CONT’D

Career

  • Individual’s journey through learning, work and other aspects of life

  • Course or progress through life

  • Range of aspects of an individual’s life, learning or work


The nurse as an individual

THE NURSE AS AN INDIVIDUAL

  • Character

  • Temperament

  • Appearance

  • Qualities of a good nurse

  • Adaptation to clinical setting – Health team


Character qualities

CHARACTER QUALITIES

Honesty

  • High on the essential qualities for the nurse

  • Resist temptation to borrow from other people without permission

  • Exaggerate and misrepresent things in social conversations/situations

  • Report and record accurately


Character cont d

CHARACTER CONT’D

Dependability

  • Important in minor and serious matters

  • On time to the ward/personal assignments

  • Give best care whether you are being watched or not?

  • Control emotions in situations ofprovocations


Character cont d1

CHARACTER CONT’D

Loyalty

  • Loyalty to yourself and others is an indication of emotional maturity.

  • Loyal to patients , respecting their confidences and avoiding gossips about or among patients

  • Loyalty can be fake or genuine

  • Loyalty can be misplaced


Character cont d2

CHARACTER CONT’D

Ambition

  • Necessary in any vocation/profession

  • Are you eager to learn

  • Will you welcome opportunity to practice or observe skills not required of you


Character cont d3

CHARACTER CONT’D

Resourcefulness

  • Its important to be able to know how to handle emergency as well as everyday situations


Character cont d4

CHARACTER CONT’D

Wisdom

  • Exercise of good judgment in situations

  • Intelligent mind capable of further development

  • Know intuitively what to do in similar situations


Character cont d5

CHARACTER CONT’D

Virtue

  • Its required for all professionals

  • Would you select friends of the opposite sex correctly

  • Moral courage to stand alone against any unacceptable behaviour in society


Character cont d6

CHARACTER CONT’D

Tolerance

  • Respecting the rights and privileges of others in the family, work and the community


Temperament personality traits

TEMPERAMENTPersonality Traits

  • Relatively stable cognitive, emotional and behavioral x’tics of people that help establish their individual identities and distinguish them from others.

  • Sanguine- cheerful, active

  • Phlegmatic- slow ,sluggish, apathetic


Temperament cont d

Temperament CONT’D

  • Melancholic-sadness, depressed moody

  • Choleric- angry, irritable, excitable

  • Nurse is expected to be empathetic towards her clients


Appearance professional grooming

APPEARANCE-PROFESSIONAL GROOMING

Personal appearance

  • Neat and orderliness

  • Good personal relationships with clients whether endowed with beauty or not

  • Good grooming

  • Pleasant mannerisms

  • Friendly disposition

  • Compensate for any irregularity of features


Grooming cont d

GROOMING CONT’D

Posture

  • Adopt a good posture when walking, sitting and lying down

  • Posture will have a bearing on your health


Grooming cont d1

GROOMING CONT’D

Face and Facial Expression

  • Discreet and skillful use of cosmestics

  • Its better to look natural as possible

  • Facial expression may be more important than physiognomy

  • Alert and intelligent expression

  • Pleasant look reflect serenity and self control

  • Boredom,confusion and mental confusion


Grooming cont d2

GROOMING CONT’D

Skin

  • Wash your skin daily with soap and water

  • Bleaching of the skin should be avoided

  • Deodorant, antiperspirant and perfume takes away unpleasant odor-use in moderation

  • Shave any unsightly hair-


Grooming cont d3

GROOMING CONT’D

Hair

  • Condition of the hair and style

  • Hair style will enhance your appearance

  • Interest, skill and good taste

  • Wash and oil hair frequently

  • Hair should be at shoulder length

  • Glamorous styles should be avoided


Grooming cont d4

GROOMING CONT’D

Hands

  • Hands needs special attention –

  • Source of infection from one person to another

  • Wash hands frequently with soap& water

  • Hand lotion –smooth

  • No wearing of long and colourful nails

  • Wedding and engagement rings is allowed


Grooming cont d5

GROOMING CONT’D

Care of Feet

  • Shoes should be low heel and broad base

  • Noiseless

  • No tight shoes- cones

  • Shoes should be in good condition


Grooming cont d6

GROOMING CONT’D

Gait

  • Brisk in walking and appearance

  • No sluggishness


Grooming cont d7

GROOMING CONT’D

Clothing

  • Clothes will influence the way people think about us

  • Social acceptance

  • Dress according to the standards of the profession you represent

  • Neat and immaculate-comform to school or your facility


Grooming cont d8

GROOMING CONT’D

Earrings

  • Dangling earrings should be avoided

  • Small ones should be worn

  • Avoid them if you can when working


Grooming cont d9

GROOMING CONT’D

Accessories

  • A pair of surgical scissors

  • Pens-

  • Breast pocket watch


Things not to do

Things Not to Do

  • Smoking and drinking on duty

  • Chewing gum or cola

  • Unwashed and ironed uniforms should be avoided

  • Shirts should not be left unbuttoned

  • Uniforms should not be above the knees


Qualities of a good nurse

Qualities of A Good Nurse

  • Great communication skills

  • Emotional Stability

  • Empathy

  • Flexibility

  • Attention to details

  • Interpersonal skills

  • Physical endurance

  • Problem solving skills

  • Quick response

  • Respect


Roles and functions

Roles and Functions

  • Traditional roles of the nurse is care and comfort

  • Expanded roles of the nurse

  • Health promotion and illness prevention


1 care giver

1. CARE GIVER

  • Helps client regain health through the healing process

  • The nurse uses a holistic approach to give care to the clients

  • The care giver helps the client and family set goals and met those goals with minimal cost of time and energy


2 clinical decision maker

2. CLINICAL DECISION MAKER

  • Uses critical thinking skills through the nursing process

  • The nurse makes the decisions alone or in collaboration with the client and family or with other health care prefessionals


3 client advocate protector

3.CLIENT ADVOCATE/PROTECTOR

  • Help to maintain a therapeutic environment that will protect the clients from possible injury

  • Protect the client from possible adverse effects of diagnostic or treatment measures

  • Protect the client’s legal and human rights


4 manager

4. MANAGER

  • Co-ordinates the activities of other members of the health team

  • Manage own time and resources of the setting

  • Direct , organize and control the care

  • Help other members in their career paths

  • Manager of client care or case manager

  • Delegate care responsibilities and supervise


5 rehablitator

5.REHABLITATOR

  • Assist client’s to return to maximum function

  • Adapt fully as possible

  • Teaching clients to cope with changes associated with illness or disability that the individual is having


6 comforter

6. COMFORTER

  • Traditional role of the nurse

  • Provides comfort and emotional support

  • Help reach therapeutic goals rather than emotional and physical dependence


7 communicator

7. COMMUNICATOR

  • Communication is central to all other nursing roles

  • Clear communication leads to effective nursing

  • Critical in meeting the needs of clients, families and the community


8 teacher

8. TEACHER

  • Explain s concepts and facts about health care to the client

  • Reinforces learning and evaluate

  • Teaching is individualized and can be formal or informal

  • Supervision and training of other health care professionals including students


Career roles

CAREER ROLES

  • Increase educational opportunities

  • Expanded roles

  • Different kinds of career opportunities


9 nurse educator

9. NURSE- EDUCATOR

  • Work in schools of nursing

  • Staff development departments

  • Health care agencies

  • Background in clinical nursing-practical/theory

  • Teaching both theory and practicals


10 advance practuce nurse

10. ADVANCE PRACTUCE NURSE

  • Master’s degree in nursing

  • Advance education in pharmacology/physical assessment

  • Certification and expertise in area of practice

  • Specialize in a disease condition or area

  • Work in Acute, primary, restorative and community care settings

  • Clinician, educator, care manager,researcher or consultant


Advance cont d

ADVANCE CONT’D

  • Clinical Nurse Specialist

  • Nurse Practitioner- out patient ambulatory or community based setting

  • Certified Nurse Midwife

  • Nurse Anesthetist

  • Nurse Administrator

  • Nurse Researcher


11 leadership role

11. LEADERSHIP ROLE

Duties which influences the actions of others

  • Deciding

  • Relating

  • Influencing

  • Facilitating

  • Delegating


Job vrs career

JOB VRS CAREER

Job

Career

Life work, long term commitment. long term planning important, possibly involving a mentor

Long training or education

Usually full time

Life long training necessary

Person selects career

Peer evaluation primarily

  • A place of work may or may not be long term employment

  • Variable initial training

  • Part time or full time

  • Intermittent retraining possible

  • Job selects persons

  • Administrator evaluation primarily


Health care team

HEALTH CARE TEAM

  • Nurse works with other health care professionals to provide total care to clients

  • The Health care team comprises four major professionals:

  • Nurse

  • Physicians

  • Allied health professionals

  • Specialists


Physician

PHYSICIAN

  • Physician assistant/ medical assistant

    Perform such functions as:

  • Physical examination

  • Diagnostic procedure

  • Completing treatments-suturing, cast


Allied health and other health professionals

Allied Health And Other Health Professionals

  • Physical Therapist

  • Occupational Therapist

  • Respiratory Therapist

  • Pharmacist

  • Social Worker

  • Laboratory Technician

  • Spiritual Advisor

  • Dietician

  • Unlicensed Personnel

  • Podiatrist

  • Dentist

  • X’ray Technician


Nursing ranks and duties

Nursing Ranks and Duties

  • Staff Nurse(SN)

  • Senior Staff Nurse(SSN)

  • Nursing Officer(NO)

  • Senior Nursing Officer(SNO)

  • Principal Nursing officer(PNO)

  • District Director Nursing Services(DDNS)

  • Chief Nursing Officer(CNO)


Ranks and uniforms

Ranks and Uniforms

  • SN and SSN- green uniform with white collar

  • NO- white uniform with white belt, white cup

  • SNO- white uniform with blue belt, white cup with lace trimmings

  • PNO-white uniform with green belt

  • DDNS- white uniform with mauve belt

  • CNO- white uniform with mauve belt

  • Staff midwives- black belt


Staff nurse sn

Staff Nurse(SN)

  • First line of entry for an SRN or diploma holder

  • Perform all activities assigned

  • Responsible for day to day activities of the ward

  • Responsible for repot writing

  • Ensure the daily care of patients

  • Works on all shifts


Senior staff nurse

Senior Staff Nurse

  • Immediate superior- NO

  • Immediate subordinate- SN

  • Assist N.O with management of supplies and equipment

  • Write reports

  • Assist with special procedures

  • Participate in budget planning for the ward

  • Participate in research activity for improvement of healthcare


Ssn con d

SSN CON’D

  • Participate in data collection and compile a list for report

  • Ensure rehabilitation of all patients

  • Participate in continuous education

  • Orientation of new staff

  • Assist and train family members with special problems

  • Does both day and night duties

  • Perform last offices

  • Perform other duties assigned


Nursing officer no

Nursing Officer(NO)

  • Immediate superior- SNO

  • Immediate subordinate- SSN and SN

  • First level manager(SRN, Diploma or degree)

  • Ensure welfare of clients and maintenance of clean environment

  • Assess overall clinic activity and need of each shift

  • Recognize potential patient care delivery problems in the ward


No cont d

NO CONT’D

  • Responsible for welfare and discipline in the ward

  • Contribute to unit goals and objectives

  • Conduct patient care conference on the ward

  • Monitor activities on the ward

  • Implement Nursing care plan

  • Maintain deadlines

  • Oreintation and continuous education


No cont d1

NO CONT’D

  • Assess performance of staff on the ward

  • Carry out ant other duties


Senior nursing officer sno

Senior Nursing Officer(SNO)

  • Immediate superior- PNO

  • Immediate subordinate- NO, SSN and SN

  • Day to day management and administration of the ward

  • Maintains and enforces discipline

  • Serves as a role model

  • Reinforces clinical standards for her unit

  • Give report on patient care and staff problems


Sno cont d

SNO CONT’D

  • Serves as a counsellor

  • Ensure registration of new nurses

  • Submit annual reports

  • Participate in health programmes


Principal nursing officer pno

Principal Nursing Officer(PNO)

  • Immediate superior- DDNS

  • Immediate subordinate- SNO,NO, SSN and SN

  • Serves in these main capacities- clinician, researcher, teacher, leadership

  • Accepts full responsibility for administration

  • Take charge of a specialized unit

  • Guides and direct subordinates in her unit

  • Collaborate with other healthcare units


Pno cont d

PNO CONT’D

  • Coordinate activities of nursing manpower

  • Guides research and implementation

  • Responsible for professional development

  • Act as a consultant

  • Review work performance of staff

  • Administrative role model


Fundamentals of nursing

DDNS

  • Immediate superior- Chief Nursing officer(CNO)

  • Immediate subordinate- PNO,SNO, NO, SSN and SN

  • Research, clinician, teacher and administration

  • Perform as an administrator in many institutions


Chief nursing officer cno

Chief Nursing Officer(CNO)

  • Administration and management level

  • Works at the ministry of health

  • One CNO at a time


Assignment

Assignment

  • From the lectures write on the character qualities you possess as an individual and explain how this will enhance your work as a future nurse or midwife.

  • Identify the roles and function of the Chief Nursing officer

  • Observe various categories of nurses on the ward and write on their uniforms


Fundamentals of nursing

  • Thanks for your attention

  • Questions


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