Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by CFD
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Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by CFD modeling. Chemical and Materials Engineering University of Alberta. Outline. Background M ilestone Cavitation modeling Cavitation experiments Future work. Background.

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Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by CFD modeling

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Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by CFD modeling

Chemical and Materials Engineering

University of Alberta


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Outline

  • Background

  • Milestone

  • Cavitation modeling

  • Cavitation experiments

  • Future work


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Background

  • Objective: develop a system for enhancing fine particle flotation using microbubbles generated by cavitation

  • Mechanism proposed by Zhou et al. 1997

  • Hydrophobic particle surface in water is a good nucleation sites for cavity generation

particle

particle

tiny bubble

tiny bubble

Flotation-sized bubbles

Enhanced coagulation by Bubble bridging

Two stage attachment


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Milestone

  • Develop a model for cavitation using CFD

  • Apply the cavitation model in a high intensity agitation system

  • Determine critical variables for hydrodynamic cavitation

  • Determine bubble size distribution using population balance equations

  • Measure bubble size distribution

  • Couple the cavitation and population balance equations with flow equations

  • Study floatation recovery


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

HIA Cell CFD modelling

CFD Modelling of cavitation is performed for the laboratory HIA cell for different impeller speeds and different dissolved gas content.


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Volume fraction of vapor

Contours of pressure and volume fraction of vapor in the HIA cell

Pressure


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Geometries

  • Orifice (R/r=2,3, R=2cm)

  • Venturi (R/r=2, R=2cm)

  • Contraction (R/r=2, R=2cm)

R

r

R

r

R

r


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Pressure profile in venturi

Our model

Hu et al. 1998

  • Minimum inlet velocity is 4 m/s for the studied venturi


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Pressure and velocity profiles in venturi

Single phase model

Inlet velocity=4m/s

Pressure profile (Pa)

Velocity profile (m/s)


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Pressure profiles in orifice

Single phase model

Inlet velocity=4m/s


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

2D and 3D comparison

Single phase model

Inlet velocity=4m/s

2D

3D


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Cavitation models

  • Schnerr-Sauer model

    • Bubble number density

  • Zwart-Gerber-Belamri

    • Bubble diameter

    • Evaporation coefficient

    • Condensation coefficient

  • Singhal et al. cavitation model

    • Non-condensable gas fraction


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Cavitation modelling

  • Multiphase flow

    • Continuity equation for mixture

    • Momentum equation for mixture

    • Cavitation model for vapor phase

  • Bubble dynamics: growth of cavitation bubbles using Rayleigh-Plesset equation


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Cavitation model

  • vapor transport equation

Evaporation rate term

Condensation rate term

When Pv ≥ P

When Pv ≤ P

Singhal et al. (2002): Ce=0.02, Cc=0.01


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Multiphase modelling in orifice

  • Continuity, turbulent flow model and Singhal et al. cavitation model, inlet velocity: 4m/s


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Multiphase modelling in orifice

  • Singhalet al. and Zwart-Gelber-Belamri Cavitation models (inlet velocity=4 m/s)


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Multiphase modelling in orifice

  • Continuity, turbulent flow model and Singhal et al. cavitation model, inlet velocity: 4m/s and 4.5m/s


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

CFD analysis in orifice R/r=3

  • Velocity contours in orifice (R/r=3)

  • Pressure profile

  • vapor fraction contours

Inlet velocity= 4 m/s

Max velocity= 51 m/s

Max pressure= 1.14 MPa

Min pressure= -98 kPa

Max vapor fraction= 0.92

Cavitation model:

Zwart-Gerber-Belamri


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

3D Multiphase modelling in orifice


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Experimental Setup


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Experimental Setup

  • ID= 1 inch

  • Variable speed slurry pump

  • Velocity range: 0-6 m/s for 1 inch ID tube


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Proposed setup

  • Pump:

    • Centrifugal

    • Max flow: 66 GPM

    • Max head: 122 ft

    • Price: $ 2000

  • Flowmeter

    • Coriolis Flow and Density Meter


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Gas holdup measurements

  • FBRM

    • 0.8 to 1000 micron

    • Inline detection

  • CCD

    • RedlakeMotionscope

    • 517 fps @ 1280 x 1024

    • Min exposure time 1µs

R. J. N. Bernier, “Unsteady two-phase flow instrumentation and measurement,” Ph.D. dissertation, Cal.. Inst. Technol., Pasadena, 1982.


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Gas holdup measurements

  • Acoustic spectrometer

  • Sonartrac

    • 2”-36”

    • 1-10 m/s

    • 1-20 %

    • 5 % accuracy

    • $ 16500

R. J. N. Bernier, “Unsteady two-phase flow instrumentation and measurement,” Ph.D. dissertation, Cal.. Inst. Technol., Pasadena, 1982.


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Gas holdup measurements

  • Conductivity cell:

C: Specific conductivity of the solution

G: Measured conductivity of the solution

L: Distance between two plates

A: area of the plates

L/A: cell constant

http://www.coleparmer.ca/techinfo/techinfo.asp?htmlfile=Conductivity.htm&ID=78


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Gas holdup measurements

  • Electrods:

    • Coaxial

    • Parallel flat plate

    • Wire grid

http://www.coleparmer.ca/techinfo/techinfo.asp?htmlfile=Conductivity.htm&ID=78


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Future Work

Implement physical experiments to evaluate parameters in cavitation model and population balance model

Use UDF in Fluent to model the generation of bubbles

Implement the population balance in a bubble-particle environment

Determine bubble-particle and particle-particle collision rate (frequency) and efficiency model parameters {experiments}

Develop comprehensive model for flotation involving in-situ bubble generation, bubble-particle interaction and the ultimate flotation recovery.

Study the effect design and operating parameters on fine particle flotation


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Acknowledgements

  • Financial support for this work from:

  • NSERC-CAMIRO CRD Grant on Fine ParticleFlotation

  • NSERC-industrial Research Chair Program in Oil Sands Engineering.


Study of hydrodynamic cavitation by cfd modeling

Thank you for your attention


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