Oregon reading first dibels review
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Oregon Reading First DIBELS Review. PSF , NWF , and ORF. Kindergarten Increase student automaticity in whole word reading (by the end of kindergarten, students will read VC and CVC words as whole units). First Grade

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Oregon reading first dibels review

Oregon Reading FirstDIBELS Review

PSF, NWF, and ORF

(c) 2010 by the Oregon Reading First Center

Center on Teaching and Learning


Oregon reading first dibels review

Kindergarten

Increase student automaticity in whole word reading (by the end of kindergarten, students will read VC and CVC words as whole units)

First Grade

Provide targeted instruction, based on student need, to all strategic and intensive students

Oregon Reading First

Project Level Goals

(2008-2009)


Oregon reading first dibels review

Assessing Each Big Idea with DIBELS


Phonemic segmentation fluency psf

Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF):

  • What important skill does it assess? Phonological Awareness

    • The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words at the phrase level

  • What is the appropriate time and grade?

    • Mid-year kindergarten through first grade

  • What is the goal?

    • How well? 35 phonemes or more

    • By when? End of kindergarten


Oregon reading first dibels review

How Do We Administer and Score the PSF Measure?

Materials:

1.Examiner copy of word list with phoneme scoring columns. Student has no materials when assessing phonological awareness.

2.Stopwatch

3.Pencil

Preparing the Student:

1.Good testing conditions (e.g., lighting, quiet, comfortable)

2.Provide model in standardized manner and follow correction procedures as necessary


Psf maximizing administration time

PSF: Maximizing Administration Time

  • Stopwatch:

    • Present the first word and start the stopwatch and time for 1 minute.

  • Scoring:

    • Underline each different, correctsound segment produced. (See specific scoring rules and examples.)

    • Put a slash (/) through sounds produced incorrectly.

  • Maintaining momentum:

    • As soon as the student is finished saying the sounds, present the next word.

    • Allow the student 3 seconds for each sound segment.

  • Discontinue:

    • If a student has not given any correct sound segments in the first 5 words, discontinue the task and record a score of zero (0).

  • Ending testing:

    • At the end of 1 minute, stop timing and calculate the number of correct phonemes per minute.


Oregon reading first dibels review

Scoring Rules for PSF

Correct Segmentation:

  • A correct sound segment is any different, correct part of the word. For example, the sound /t/ is a correct segment of "trick", as are /tr/ and /tri/

  • Examiner says "trick," student says "t...r...i...k"

    • Examiner says "cat," student says "k...a...t"

CORRECT

STUDENT

SCORING

SEGMENTS

SAYS:

PROCEDURE:

WORD:

trick

t...r...i...k

/t/ /r/ /i/ /k/

4/4

cat

k...a...t

/k/ /a/ /t/

3/3


Oregon reading first dibels review

Elongating Sounds

Correct Segmentation:

  • No need for an audible pause between the sounds to receive credit.

  • If you can hear each individual sound when the student runs them together, score each sound as correct.

  • Use your professional judgment based on the response and your knowledge of your program. If still not sure, do not give credit.

  • STUDENT SCORING CORRECT

    WORD: SAYS: PROCEDURE: SEGMENTS

    rest “rrrreeeessssttt” /r/ /e/ /s/ /t/ 4/4


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Errors in Segmenting: No Segmentation

    No Segmentation:

    • If student repeats the entire word, no credit is given for any correct parts.

    • Circle the word to indicate no segmented response was given.

    STUDENT SCORING CORRECT

    WORD:SAYS: PROCEDURE: SEGMENTS

    trick“trick”/t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ 0/4

    cat“cat”/k/ /a/ /t/ 0/3


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Errors in Segmenting: Incomplete Segmentation

    Incomplete segmentation:

    • Student is given partial credit for each sound segment produced correctly, even if student has not segmented at the phoneme level.

      • The underline indicates the size of the sound segment.

      • For example: Examiner says “trick,” student says “tr...ick” Examiner says “cat,” student says “c...at”

    ...

    STUDENT

    SCORING

    CORRECT

    WORD:

    SAYS:

    PROCEDURE:

    SEGMENTS

    trick

    tr

    ...

    ik”

    /t/ /r/ /i/ /k/

    2/4

    cat

    c

    at”

    /k/ /a/ /t/

    2/3


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Errors in Segmenting: Overlapping Sounds

    Overlapping:

    • Student receives credit for each different, correct sound segment of the word.

      • Underline the different sound segments produced

      • For example:

        Examiner says “trick,” student says “tri...ick”

        Examiner says “cat,” student says “c...cat”

    CORRECT

    STUDENT

    SCORING

    SEGMENTS

    WORD:

    SAYS:

    PROCEDURE:

    trick

    /t/ /r/ /i/ /k/

    2/4

    tri

    ...

    ick

    cat

    c

    cat”

    /k/ /a/ /t/

    1/3


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    STUDENT

    SCORING

    CORRECT

    WORD:

    SAYS:

    PROCEDURE:

    SEGMENTS

    trick

    t...

    ik”

    /t/ /r/ /i/ /k/

    2/4

    cat

    c”

    (3 seconds)

    /k/ /a/ /t/

    1/3

    Errors in Segmenting: Omission of Sounds

    Omission:

    • Student does not receive credit for sound segments not produced. If student provides the initial sound only, be sure to wait 3 seconds for elaboration.


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    STUDENT

    SCORING

    CORRECT

    WORD:

    SAYS:

    PROCEDURE:

    SEGMENTS

    trick

    t...r...i...

    ks”

    /t/ /r/ /i/ /k/

    3/4

    cat

    b…

    a...t”

    /k/ /a/ /t/

    2/3

    Errors in Segmenting: Mispronunciation of Sounds

    Mispronunciation:

    • Student does not receive credit for sound segments that are mispronounced.

      • Put a slash (/) through the incorrect sounds.

      • For example, there is no /ks/ sound in the word "trick."


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Student Characteristics

    Pronunciation & Dialect:

    • Student is not penalized for imperfect pronunciation due to dialect or articulation.

      • For example, if the student says /r/ /e/ /th/ /t/ for "rest" because of articulation difficulties, give full credit. Use professional judgment and prior knowledge of the student’s speech pattern to assess skill performance.


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    STUDENT

    SCORING

    CORRECT

    WORD:

    SAYS:

    PROCEDURE:

    SEGMENTS

    trick

    tu

    ...

    ru

    ...i...

    ku”

    /t/ /r/ /i/ /k/

    4/4

    cat

    ku

    ...a...

    tu”

    /k/ /a/ /t/

    3/3

    Student Characteristics

    Schwa Sounds:

    • Schwa sounds (/u/) added to consonants are not counted as errors.


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF):

    • What important skill does NWF assess?

      Alphabetic Principle: The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words.

    • What is the appropriate time and grade?

      Middle of the year in kindergarten and throughout first grade.

    • What is the goal?

      First Grade:

      How well? 50 correct letter-sounds (CLS) or more and 15 words recoded completely and correctly (WRC)

      By when? Middle of first grade

      Kindergarten:

      How well? 25 correct letter-sounds (CLS) or more and 8 words recoded completely and correctly (WRC)

      By when?End of kindergarten


    How do we administer and score the nwf measure

    How Do We Administer and Score the NWF Measure?

    • Materials:

      • Examiner probe

      • Student pages (practice page “sim lut” and test page)

      • Stopwatch

      • Pencil

    • Preparing the student:

      • Good testing conditions (e.g., lighting, quiet, comfortable)

      • Provide the model in standardized manner and follow correction procedures as necessary


    How do we administer and score the nwf measure1

    How Do We Administer and Score the NWF Measure?

    Say these specific directions to the child:

    “Look at this word (point to the first word on the practice probe). It’s a make-believe word. Watch me read the word: (point to the letter “s”) /s/, (point to the letter “i”) /i/, (point to the letter “m”) /m/ “sim” (run your finger fast through the whole word). I can say the sounds of the letters, /s/ /i/ /m/ (point to each letter), or I can read the whole word “sim” (run your finger fast through the whole word).

    “Your turn to read a make-believe word. Read this word the best you can (point to the word “lut”). Make sure you say any sounds you know.”


    How do we administer and score the nwf measure2

    How Do We Administer and Score the NWF Measure?


    How do we administer and score the nwf measure3

    How Do We Administer and Score the NWF Measure?

    Place the student copy of the probe in front of the child.

    Here are some more make-believe words(point to the student probe).Start here(point to the first word)and go across the page(point across the page).When I say “begin,” read the words the best you can. Point to each letter and tell me the sound or read the whole word. Read the words the best you can. Put your finger on the first word. Ready, begin.

    Student Copy


    Nwf maximizing administration time

    NWF: Maximizing Administration Time

    • Stopwatch:

      • Start watch after you say, “Ready, begin” and time for 1 minute.

    • Scoring:

      • Underline each correct letter sound produced (see specific scoring rules and examples).

      • Slash each incorrect letter sound produced.

    • Maintaining momentum:

      • Allow the student 3 seconds for each letter sound. After 3 seconds, provide the sound to keep the student moving.

    • Discontinue:

      • If a student does not get any correct in the first row, discontinue the task and record a score of zero (0).

    • Ending testing:

      • At the end of 1 minute, put a bracket after the last letter-sound/word produced and calculate the total letter-sounds correct in one minute.


    Scoring rules for nwf

    Scoring Rules for NWF

    Correct Letter Sounds A correct letter sound is scored as the most common soundin English.

    • For example, all the vowels are scored for the short sound and the most common sound for the letter “c” is /k/. See pronunciation guide for remaining letter sounds.

      Marking the booklet Underline exactly the way the student completes task.

    • For example, if the student goes sound-by-sound, underline each letter individually. If the student reads the target as a whole word, underline the entire word.


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Scoring Rules for NWF

    1. Discontinue Rule. If the student does not get any sounds correct in words 1-5, discontinue the task and record a score of 0.


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Scoring Rules for NWF

    2. Correct letter sounds. Underline the individual letters for letter sounds produced correctly in

    isolation and score 1 point for each letter sound produced correctly. For example, if the stimulus word is “tob” and the student says /t/ /o/ /b/, the individual letters would be underlined with a score of three.

    Example:

    Correct Letter Sounds


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Scoring Rules for NWF

    3. Correct words. Use a single underline under multiple letters for correct letter sounds blended together and give credit for each letter sound correspondence produced correctly. For

    example, if the stimulus word is “tob” and the student says “tob”, one underline would be used with a score of 3.

    Example:

    Correct Words


    Scoring rules for nwf1

    Scoring Rules for NWF

    4.Partially correct words. If a word is partially correct, underline the corresponding letters for letter sounds produced correctly. Put a slash ( ) through the letter if the corresponding letter sound is incorrect. For example, if the word is “tob” and the student says “toab” (with a long o), the letters “t” and “b” would be underlined, and the letter “o” would be slashed giving a score of 2.

    Example:

    Partially Correct Words


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Scoring Rules for NWF

    5. Repeated sounds Letter sounds pronounced twice while sounding out the word are given credit only once.

    For example, if stimulus word is "sim" and the student says

    /s/ /i/ /im/, the letter "i" is underlined once and the student receives 1 point for the phoneme "i" even though the letter "i" was pronounced correctly twice (a total of 3 for the entire word).

    Example:

    Repeated Sounds


    Scoring rules for nwf2

    Scoring Rules for NWF

    6.3-second rule - sound by sound If student hesitates for 3 seconds on a letter, score the letter sound incorrect, provide the correct letter sound, point to the next letter, and say, "What sound?"

    • This prompt may be repeated. For example, if the stimulus word is "tob" and the student says /t/ (3 seconds), prompt by saying, "/o/ (point to b) What sound?"

    Example:

    3-second rule-sound by sound


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Scoring Rules for NWF

    7.3-second rule - word by word If student hesitates for 3 seconds on a word, score the word incorrect, provide the correct word, point to the next word, and say, "What word?"

    This prompt may be repeated. For example, if the stimulus words are "tob dos et" and the student says, "tob" (3 seconds), prompt by saying "dos (point to et) What word?"

    Example:

    3-secong rule-word by word


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Scoring Rules for NWF

    8. Sound order – sound by sound. Letter sounds produced in isolation but out of order are scored as correct. For example, if stimulus word is “tob” and the student points to and says, /b/ /o/ /t/, all letters would be underlined, with a score of 3. The purpose of this rule is to give students credit as they are beginning to learn individual letter sound correspondences.

    Example:

    Sound Order-Sound by Sound


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Scoring Rules for NWF

    9. Sound order – word by word. Blended letter sounds must be correct and in the correct place (beginning, middle, end) to receive credit. For example, if stimulus word is “tob” and the student says, “bot”, only the “o” would be correct and in the correct place, for a score of 1.

    Example:

    Sound Order-Word by Word


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Scoring Rules for NWF

    10. Insertions. Insertions are not scored as incorrect. For example, if the stimulus word is “sim” and the student says “stim”, the letters “s,” “i,” and “m” would be underlined and full credit would given for the word with no penalty for the insertion of /t/.

    Example:

    Insertions


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Scoring Rules for NWF

    11. Dialect and articulation. The student is not penalized for imperfect pronunciation due to dialect, articulation, or second language inferences. This is a professional judgment and should be based on the student’s responses and any prior knowledge of their speech patterns.

    For example, a student may regularly substitute /th/ for /s/. If the stimulus word is “sim” and the student says “thim,” the letter “s” would be underlined and credit for a correct-letter

    sound correspondence would be given.

    Example:

    Dialect and Articulation


    Scoring rules for nwf3

    Scoring Rules for NWF

    12. Self correct. If a student makes an error and corrects him/herself within 3 seconds, write “SC” above the letter sound or word and count it as correct.

    13. Skips row. If a student skips an entire row, draw a line through the row and do not count the row in scoring.


    Lets practice nwf

    Lets Practice NWF

    For practice materials, please used the NWF breakout activity that is part of the DIBELS refresher module


    Oral reading fluency orf

    Oral Reading Fluency (ORF):

    • What important skill does it assess?

      • Fluency and accuracy with connected text: The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text leads to understanding.

    • What is the appropriate time and

      grade?

      • Middle of first grade through third grade

    • What is the goal:

      • To be fluent at the skill by end of first

        grade.

        • How well? 40 correct words or more

        • By when? End of first grade

      • What about second grade?

        • How well? 90 correct words or more

      • What about third grade?

        • How well? 110 correct words or more


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Say these specific directions to the child: “Please read this (point) out loud. If you get stuck, I will tell you the word so you can keep reading. When I say "stop," I may ask you to tell me about what you read, so do your best reading. Start here (point to the first word of the passage). Begin.”

    How Do We Administer and Score the ORF Measure?

    • Materials:

      1) Examiner probe

      2) Student passages

      3) Stopwatch

      4) Pencil

    • Preparing the student:

      Good testing conditions (e.g., lighting, quiet, comfortable)


    Orf maximizing administration time

    ORF: Maximizing Administration Time

    • Stopwatch:

      • Start watch after student says the first word and time for 1 minute.

    • Scoring:

      • Slash each word produced incorrectly.

    • Maintaining momentum:

      • Allow student 3 seconds for each word. After 3 seconds, say the word to keep the student moving.

    • Discontinue:

      • If student does not get any correct in the first row, discontinue the task and record a score of zero (0).

      • If student scores less than 10 on the first passage, do not administer the other two passages.

    • Ending testing:

      • At the end of 1 minute, put a bracket after the last word produced and calculate the number of correct words in one minute.


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    How Do We Administer and Score the ORF Measure?

    • Say these specific directions to the child:

    • “Please read this (point) out loud. If you get stuck, I will tell you the word so you can keep reading. When I say "stop," I may ask you to tell me about what you read, so do your best reading. Start here (point to the first word of the passage). Begin.”


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Scoring Rules for ORF:Scoring Directions are Similar to Marston, D. (1989)

    1.Correctly Read Words are pronounced correctly. A word must be pronounced correctly given the context of the sentence.

    • Example: The word “read” must be pronounced /reed/ when presented in the context of the following sentence:

      • Ben will read the story.WRC = 5

        not as:

      • “Ben will red the story.”WRC = 4

        2.Self-Corrected Words are counted as correct. Words misread initially but corrected within 3 seconds are counted as correct.

    • Example:

      • Dad likes to watch sports.WRC = 5

      • read as:

      • “Dad likes to watch spin...(3 seconds)…sports.”WRC = 5


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Scoring Rules for ORF

    3.Repeated Words are counted as correct. Words said over again correctly are ignored.

    • Example:

      • I have a goldfish.

        WRC = 4

      • read as:

      • “I have a ...have a goldfish.”

        WRC = 4

        4.Dialectic variations in pronunciation that are explainable by local language norms are not errors.

    • Example:

      • We took the short cut.WRC = 5

      • read as:

      • “We took the shot cut.”WRC = 5


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Scoring Rules for ORF

    5.Inserted Words are ignored. When students add extra words, they are not counted as correct words nor as reading errors.

    • Example:

      • I ate too much.WRC = 4

      • read as:

      • “I ate way too much.”WRC = 4

        6.Mispronounced or Substituted Words are counted as incorrect.

    • Example:

      • She lives in a pretty house.WRC = 6

      • read as:

      • “She lives in a pretty home.”WRC = 5


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Scoring Rules for ORF

    7.Omitted/Skipped Words are counted as errors.

    • Example:

      • Mario climbed the old oak tree.WRC = 6

      • read as:

      • “Mario climbed the tree.”WRC = 4


    Oregon reading first dibels review

    Scoring Rules for ORF

    • Words must be read in accordance with the context of the passage

      8.Hyphenated Words count as two words if both parts can stand alone as individual words. Hyphenated words count as one word if either part cannot stand alone as an individual word.

      9. Numerals and Datesmust be read correctly in the context of the sentence.

      10.Abbreviations must be read as pronounced in normal conversation. For example, “TV” could be read as "teevee" or "television," but “Mr.” must be read as "mister."


    Tips for scoring

    Tips for Scoring

    • Student must read exactly what is on the page.

    • Self-corrections and insertions are ignored and not counted as errors.

    • Simply slash errors until you feel comfortable writing in the error types.

    • Score what you hear!

      • Practice with at least 7 students before using the scores to make programming decisions.

    • Look over passages you are presenting to ensure pacing is efficient.

    • Use the middle score of the three passages read to assess the student’s skill.

      • Have student read all three passages in one sitting


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