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The Early Cold War: 1947-1970. Part I: “Reconstruction and Confrontation”. The Ideological Struggle. Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”]. Vs. US & the Western Democracies. Different Ideologies. Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race Ideological Competition

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The EarlyCold War:1947-1970

Part I:“Reconstruction and Confrontation”

The Ideological Struggle

Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations[“Iron Curtain”]


US & the Western Democracies

Different ideologies
Different Ideologies

  • Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]

  • Arms Race

  • Ideological Competition

  • Bi-Polarization of Europe


“Iron Curtain”

From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

Truman Doctrine [1947]

Greece, Turkey

The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.

The U.S. gave Greece and Turkey $400 million in aid to keep it safe from communism

Marshall Plan [1948]

“European Recovery Program”

George Marshall

The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move “is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.”

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)

  • United States

  • Belgium

  • Britain

  • Canada

  • Denmark

  • France

  • Iceland

  • Italy

  • Luxemburg

  • Netherlands

  • Norway

  • Portugal

  • 1952: Greece & Turkey

  • 1955: West Germany

  • 1983: Spain

Warsaw Pact (1955)

U. S. S. R.




East Germany




Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev

About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist.If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don'tinvite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956

De-Stalinization Program

De stalinization

  • Ended forced labor

  • Khrushchev denounced dictatorial rule

  • 1956-1961Stalin’s name removed from cities, buildings, projects

  • Stalin’s body removed from Lenin’s tomb

The Hungarian Uprising: 1956

Imre Nagy, HungarianPrime Minister

Removed state controls on speech

Wanted free elections, no Warsaw Pact


  • 1945-1955, 2000 “enemies” executed

  • Over 300,000 purged from intellectual, other leadership roles

  • 100,000 in labor camps

  • 1956: Nagy removed by Soviets

  • Major show of force by Soviet army

  • 250,000 flee Hungary, repression

Sputnik I (1957)

The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!

Soviet space advances
Soviet Space Advances

  • 1957: Laika

  • First death in space

Nixon-Khrushchev“Kitchen Debate”(1959)

“Things that matter, instead of luxury.”


Surveillance, shot down

Well-planned by US but failed

PR coup by Soviets

2 weeks before East/West summit

U-2 Spy Incident (1960)

Informal discussion

Bay of Pigs, disaster for US

Kennedy must act as if the US is at a disadvantage


Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

Show film clip: “Cuban Missile Crisis”

Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!

Ich bin ein Berliner!(1963)

President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them

“Prague Spring” (1968)

Former Czech President, Alexander Dubček

4thFrench Republic: 1945-1958

  • Democratic, but politically unstable

  • Universal suffrage.

  • Weak President; powerful legislature

  • Many political parties [coalition governments]

  • Indochina.

  • Suez War.

  • Algerian Crisis.

5thFrench Republic (1958-Present)

  • Powerful President.* first: Charles DeGaulle

  • Weak Cabinet

  • Weakened legislature.

  • Separation of powers.

Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: 1945-1951

  • Limited socialist program[modern welfare state].

  • Nationalization of industry

  • Socialized medicine

Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: 1945-1951

  • Britain is in a big debt

  • The beginning of the end of the British Empire.

    • India – 1947

    • Palestine – 1948

Churchill Returns: 1951-1955

He never tried to destroy the “welfare state” established by Attlee’s government.

The Federated Republicof Germany

  • Created in 1949

  • Limited army, US will protect

  • Konrad Adenauer

    • Pro-Western foreign policy.

    • German “economic miracle.”

Italy After WW II

Coalition governments [short and unstable!]

Part II:“European Union”

European Economic Integration

  • 1947  General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT]

European Economic Integration

  • 1952  European Coal & Steel Community [ECSC].

    • “Inner Six”

    • Coal and steel

European Economic Integration

  • 1957  European Economic Community [EEC]

European Economic Integration

  • 4. 1957  European Economic Community [EEC]

    • Created a larger free trade area, or customs union.

European Economic Integration

  • 5. 1967  combined the ECSC & EEC to form the European Community [EC].

    • HQ  Brussels.

    • European Parliament.

European Economic Integration

  • 6. 1991-92  Maastricht Agreements

    • European Union [EU] created from the EC.

      • One currency, one culture, one social area, and one environment!