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The Early Cold War: 1947-1970. Part I: “Reconstruction and Confrontation”. The Ideological Struggle. Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”]. Vs. US & the Western Democracies. Different Ideologies. Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race Ideological Competition

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The Early Cold War: 1947-1970

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The early cold war 1947 1970

The EarlyCold War:1947-1970


The early cold war 1947 1970

Part I:“Reconstruction and Confrontation”


The early cold war 1947 1970

The Ideological Struggle

Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations[“Iron Curtain”]

Vs.

US & the Western Democracies


Different ideologies

Different Ideologies

  • Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]

  • Arms Race

  • Ideological Competition

  • Bi-Polarization of Europe


The early cold war 1947 1970

The

“Iron Curtain”

From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946


The early cold war 1947 1970

Truman Doctrine [1947]

Greece, Turkey

The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.

The U.S. gave Greece and Turkey $400 million in aid to keep it safe from communism


The early cold war 1947 1970

Marshall Plan [1948]

“European Recovery Program”

George Marshall

The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move “is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.”


The early cold war 1947 1970

Post-War Germany


The early cold war 1947 1970

Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)


The early cold war 1947 1970

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)

  • United States

  • Belgium

  • Britain

  • Canada

  • Denmark

  • France

  • Iceland

  • Italy

  • Luxemburg

  • Netherlands

  • Norway

  • Portugal

  • 1952: Greece & Turkey

  • 1955: West Germany

  • 1983: Spain


The early cold war 1947 1970

Warsaw Pact (1955)

U. S. S. R.

Albania

Bulgaria

Czechoslovakia

East Germany

Hungary

Poland

Romania


The early cold war 1947 1970

Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev

About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist.If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don'tinvite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956

De-Stalinization Program


De stalinization

De-Stalinization

  • Ended forced labor

  • Khrushchev denounced dictatorial rule

  • 1956-1961Stalin’s name removed from cities, buildings, projects

  • Stalin’s body removed from Lenin’s tomb


The early cold war 1947 1970

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty


The early cold war 1947 1970

The Hungarian Uprising: 1956

Imre Nagy, HungarianPrime Minister

Removed state controls on speech

Wanted free elections, no Warsaw Pact


Hungary

Hungary

  • 1945-1955, 2000 “enemies” executed

  • Over 300,000 purged from intellectual, other leadership roles

  • 100,000 in labor camps

  • 1956: Nagy removed by Soviets

  • Major show of force by Soviet army

  • 250,000 flee Hungary, repression


The early cold war 1947 1970

Sputnik I (1957)

The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!


Soviet space advances

Soviet Space Advances

  • 1957: Laika

  • First death in space


The early cold war 1947 1970

Nixon-Khrushchev“Kitchen Debate”(1959)

“Things that matter, instead of luxury.”


The early cold war 1947 1970

1960

Surveillance, shot down

Well-planned by US but failed

PR coup by Soviets

2 weeks before East/West summit

U-2 Spy Incident (1960)


The early cold war 1947 1970

Khruschev Embraces Castro,1961


The early cold war 1947 1970

Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)


The early cold war 1947 1970

Informal discussion

Bay of Pigs, disaster for US

Kennedy must act as if the US is at a disadvantage

1961


The early cold war 1947 1970

The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)

CheckpointCharlie


The early cold war 1947 1970

Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)


The early cold war 1947 1970

Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

Show film clip: “Cuban Missile Crisis”


The early cold war 1947 1970

Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!


The early cold war 1947 1970

Ich bin ein Berliner!(1963)

President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GK907TwM7q0


The early cold war 1947 1970

“Prague Spring” (1968)

Former Czech President, Alexander Dubček

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-4WdrbahQqs&feature=related


The early cold war 1947 1970

“Prague Spring” Dashed!


The early cold war 1947 1970

4thFrench Republic: 1945-1958

  • Democratic, but politically unstable

  • Universal suffrage.

  • Weak President; powerful legislature

  • Many political parties [coalition governments]

  • Indochina.

  • Suez War.

  • Algerian Crisis.


The early cold war 1947 1970

5thFrench Republic (1958-Present)

  • Powerful President.* first: Charles DeGaulle

  • Weak Cabinet

  • Weakened legislature.

  • Separation of powers.


The early cold war 1947 1970

Student Riots in Paris(May 1968)


The early cold war 1947 1970

Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: 1945-1951

  • Limited socialist program[modern welfare state].

  • Nationalization of industry

  • Socialized medicine


The early cold war 1947 1970

Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: 1945-1951

  • Britain is in a big debt

  • The beginning of the end of the British Empire.

    • India – 1947

    • Palestine – 1948


The early cold war 1947 1970

Churchill Returns: 1951-1955

He never tried to destroy the “welfare state” established by Attlee’s government.


The early cold war 1947 1970

The Federated Republicof Germany

  • Created in 1949

  • Limited army, US will protect

  • Konrad Adenauer

    • Pro-Western foreign policy.

    • German “economic miracle.”


The early cold war 1947 1970

Italy After WW II

Coalition governments [short and unstable!]


The early cold war 1947 1970

Part II:“European Union”


The early cold war 1947 1970

European Economic Integration

  • 1947  General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT]


The early cold war 1947 1970

European Economic Integration

  • 1952  European Coal & Steel Community [ECSC].

    • “Inner Six”

    • Coal and steel


The early cold war 1947 1970

European Economic Integration

  • 1957  European Economic Community [EEC]


The early cold war 1947 1970

European Economic Integration

  • 4. 1957  European Economic Community [EEC]

    • Created a larger free trade area, or customs union.


The early cold war 1947 1970

European Economic Integration

  • 5. 1967  combined the ECSC & EEC to form the European Community [EC].

    • HQ  Brussels.

    • European Parliament.


The early cold war 1947 1970

European Economic Integration

  • 6. 1991-92  Maastricht Agreements

    • European Union [EU] created from the EC.

      • One currency, one culture, one social area, and one environment!


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