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MCAS REVIEW DAY 2. Final skim. STUFF AND SMELLS. FRIDAY, JUNE 1 ST (NB PG 45). Obj : Answer MCAS questions related to Smells Lang. Obj: use correct terms for atoms and the PT HW : make up work! Announcements: Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13 th , 2:00pm

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Mcas review day 2

MCAS REVIEW DAY 2

Final skim

STUFF AND SMELLS


Friday june 1 st nb pg 45
FRIDAY, JUNE 1ST (NB PG 45)

  • Obj: Answer MCAS questions related to Smells

  • Lang. Obj: use correct terms for atoms and the PT

  • HW: make up work!

  • Announcements:

    • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th, 2:00pm

    • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th

    • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!

    • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days next week!)


Chemcatalyst nb pg 44
CHEMCATALYST (NB PG 44)

  • Answer day 2 MCAS questions on notebook page 44

  • note that there are ‘hints’ for some problems


Answer key
ANSWER KEY

  • 18. C

  • 19. B

  • 20. C

  • 21. D

  • 22. A

  • 26. B

  • 27. D

  • 28. A

  • 29. A

  • 30. D

  • 31. A

  • 32. C


What content questions do you have
WHAT CONTENT QUESTIONS DO YOU HAVE?

  • How do you draw lewis dot structures?


But i m not taking the chemistry mcas why do i have to review for it
“…BUT I’M NOT TAKING THE CHEMISTRY MCAS, WHY DO I HAVE TO REVIEW FOR IT?”

  • Yes, but everyone is taking the City Test, and…

  • The City Test, your final exam, is based on the MCAS

  • Some questions on the City Test are exactly the same as MCAS

  • They cover the same content


Today s agenda
TODAY’S AGENDA TO REVIEW FOR IT?”

  • Answer Practice Questions 1-10 (10 min)

  • Q& A and Answer key (5 min)

  • Smells Review (20 min)

  • Selected MCAS Q’s practice (10 min)

  • Answer key, Q&A (5 min)


Review
REVIEW TO REVIEW FOR IT?”



Covalently bonded molecules
COVALENTLY BONDED MOLECULES: ball-and-stick model below?

  • Molecular formula: The chemical formula that shows the types of atoms in each molecule and the ratios of those atoms to one another.

  • (ex: H2O, C2H5OH)

  • Chemical Name: a name that uses key words to tell the reader the properties of the molecule. Chemical names may also use numbers and can be one or two words

  • (ex: water, ethanol)



Key terms for today handout 5
KEY TERMS FOR TODAY (HANDOUT #5) ball-and-stick model below?

  • Structural formula: A drawing or diagram that a chemist uses to show how the atoms in a molecule are connected. Each line represents a covalent bond.

  • Isomers: Molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas.



Notes nb pg 7
NOTES (NB PG 7) ball-and-stick model below?

  • The HONC 1234 rule is a way to remember the bonding tendencies of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon atoms in molecules

  • Hydrogen  one bond

  • Oxygen  two bonds

  • Nitrogen  three bonds

  • Carbon  four bonds



  • Covalent Bonds nitrogen?

  • Smells Unit focuses on covalent bonds

  • Every line in a structural formula represents a covalent bond

  • Covalent bond:

    • Two atoms SHARING two or more valence electrons between them.

  • Covalent bonds are formed from the non-metallic elements on the right side of the Periodic Table


  • Lewis Dot nitrogen?

    • When we draw an atom using dots to represent the valence electrons it is called a Lewis dot symbol.

    • When we draw a molecule using dots to represent the valence electrons it is called a Lewis dot structure.

    • Nitrogen, with five valence electrons, would be drawn as follows:

    • Notice that the Lewis dot symbol of nitrogen has three single electrons (unpaired electrons) and one set that is paired (electron pair). This means that nitrogen has three electrons that can potentially be paired up with electrons from other atoms.


  • Bonded/Lone Pairs nitrogen?

  • Shared electrons are called bonded pairs

  • Pairs of electrons that are not involved in bonding are called lone pairs



Pre lesson notes see hdt 13

After bonding, each chlorine atom has a total of eight valence electrons surrounding it.

PRE-LESSON NOTES (SEE HDT 13)

  • Rule of Eights/Octet rule: Nonmetal atoms combine so that each atom has a total of eight valence electrons by sharing electrons.

  • Each atom in the molecule has an “octet” of valence electrons.

  • Note that the hydrogen atoms do not follow the octet rule.

    • They have a total of two electrons, similar to the noble gas helium, He.


Steps to writing complex structural formulas and lewis dot structures
STEPS TO WRITING COMPLEX STRUCTURAL FORMULAS AND LEWIS DOT STRUCTURES

  • 1.Draw the structural formula by adding elements in this order:

  • a) Carbon first, in a chain

  • b) Add nitrogen (or other atoms that make 3 bonds)

  • c) Add oxygen (or other atoms that make 2 bonds)

  • d) Add hydrogen (or other atoms that make 1 bond

  • 2. Add in the lone pairs on atoms other than carbon and hydrogen

  • 3. Check that all atoms have an octet of electrons (when adding, each bond line counts as 2 electrons)

  • 4. Add double and/or triple bonds to atoms that don’t have an octet until they do.

  • 5. Convert this to a Lewis dot structure, change each line to a bonding pair of electrons



Discussion notes cont
Discussion Notes (cont.) Unit (ex: amine)


Discussion
Discussion Unit (ex: amine)


Discussion1
Discussion Unit (ex: amine)


Discussion2
Discussion Unit (ex: amine)


Discussion3
Discussion Unit (ex: amine)

There are other functional groups.



Notes: see back of handout #21! reaction?

  • A chemical reaction (rxn) is defined as a chemical transformation where bonds are broken and new bonds are formed—substances interact to produce new substances with new properties..

  • A chemical reaction is the same as a chemical change.

  • The starting ingredients in a chemical reaction are called the reactants.

  • The ending compounds are called the products.

(cont.)



Notes see handout 27
NOTES (SEE HANDOUT #27) reaction?

  • The following shapes can be used to describe most molecules or parts of molecules!

  • To predict shapes:

  • Draw the Lewis dot symbol for each element

  • Put the element with the most unpaired electrons in the center and arrange the other elements around it

  • Count the number of bonded pairs and lone pairs and match to the right shape

Try:

H2Se

SiH4

HBr



Pre lesson notes handout pg 31
PRE-LESSON NOTES: HANDOUT PG 31 reaction?

Double or triple bonding changes the number of electron domains around an atom, affecting the overall shape of a molecule.

Trigonal planar shape: A flat triangular

shape found in small molecules with three electron domains surrounding the central atom.

Linear shape: A geometric shape found in

small molecules with two electron domains surrounding the central atom.

The number of electron domains is more important in determining the structure of a molecule than is the number of atoms.



Chemcatalyst
ChemCatalyst reaction?

  • What similarities and differences do you see between these two different types of models?

Space-filling model of citronellol

Ball-and-stick model of citronellol





Notes see handout 43 back

Some molecules have a slight charge on opposite ends of the molecule. Molecules that have partial charges are called polar molecules. One end of the molecule has a partial negative charge and the other end of the molecule has a partial positive charge.

NOTES: SEE HANDOUT (#43, BACK)


Notes
Notes molecule. Molecules that have

  • Hexane was not attracted to the charged wand. So it would seem reasonable to suggest that different ends of the molecule do not have opposite partial charges. Molecules such as this are called nonpolar molecules.


Notes1
Notes molecule. Molecules that have

  • The attraction that happens between individual polar molecules is called an intermolecular interaction or an intermolecular attraction.



Notes back of 47
NOTES (BACK OF #47) molecule. Molecules that have

  • The tendency of an atom to attract shared electrons is called electronegativity.

  • Electronegativity: The tendency of an atom to attract the electrons that are involved in bonding.


Notes 47
NOTES (#47) molecule. Molecules that have

  • Dipole: A polar molecule or a polar bond between atoms. A crossed arrow is used to show the direction of a dipole. The crossed end of the arrow indicates the partial positive (+) end of the polar bond, and the arrow points in the direction of the partial negative (–) end.


Notes molecule. Molecules that have (#47)

  • Nonpolar covalent bonds are the only bonds in which the electrons are truly shared equally.

  • If the electronegativities between two atoms are even slightly different, they form what is called a polar covalent bond.

  • When the electronegativities between two atoms are greatly different, the bond is called an ionic bond. In the case of an ionic bond the electron of one atom is completely given up to the other atom.


Notes back of 49
NOTES (BACK OF #49) molecule. Molecules that have

  • By determining the numerical difference between electronegativities in a bond, you can compare the polarities of bonds.

  • Numerical differences in electronegativity can also help predict the type of bond that will be found.

Electronegativity difference

Bonding between atoms is on a continuum.


Notes back of 491

Try: Na-N, O-C, K-Se molecule. Molecules that have

NOTES (BACK OF #49)

  • The dividing line between polar covalent bonding and ionic bonding is not clear-cut.

    • Ionic bonds: difference of 2 or greater

    • Polar covalent: difference of 0.5 to 2

    • Nonpolar covalent: difference less than 0.5

Electronegativity difference

Bonding between atoms is on a continuum.



Notes see handout 51
NOTES (SEE HANDOUT #51) molecule. Molecules that have

  • The polarity of diatomic (two-atom) molecules is fairly easy to determine. The atom with the higher electronegativity has a partial negative charge while the atom with the lower electronegativity has a partial positive charge.


Polar molecules
Polar molecules molecule. Molecules that have

  • Polar molecules have polar bonds AND are asymmetrical


Non polar molecules
Non-polar Molecules molecule. Molecules that have

  • Non-polar molecules have EITHER non-polar bonds OR have polar bonds but are perfectly symmetrical

Tetrafluoromethane is symmetrical and nonpolar.


More practice
MORE PRACTICE!!! molecule. Molecules that have


For day 3 topics
FOR DAY 3: TOPICS molecule. Molecules that have

  • Entropy

  • Exo/endo

  • leChatelier

  • Redox

  • Buffers

  • Percent yield


Friday june 1 st nb pg 44
FRIDAY, JUNE 1 molecule. Molecules that have ST (NB PG 44)

  • Obj: Answer MCAS questions related to Smells

  • Lang. Obj: use correct terms for atoms and the PT

  • HW: make up work!

  • Announcements:

    • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th, 2:00pm

    • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th

    • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!

    • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days next week!)


Friday june 1 st nb pg 441
FRIDAY, JUNE 1 molecule. Molecules that have ST (NB PG 44)

  • Obj: Answer MCAS questions related to Smells

  • Lang. Obj: use correct terms for atoms and the PT

  • HW: make up work!

  • Announcements:

    • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th, 2:00pm

    • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th

    • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!

    • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days next week!)


Friday june 1 st nb pg 442
FRIDAY, JUNE 1 molecule. Molecules that have ST (NB PG 44)

  • Obj: Answer MCAS questions related to Smells

  • Lang. Obj: use correct terms for atoms and the PT

  • HW: make up work!

  • Announcements:

    • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th, 2:00pm

    • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th

    • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!

    • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days next week!)


Friday june 1 st nb pg 443
FRIDAY, JUNE 1 molecule. Molecules that have ST (NB PG 44)

  • Obj: Answer MCAS questions related to Smells

  • Lang. Obj: use correct terms for atoms and the PT

  • HW: make up work!

  • Announcements:

    • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th, 2:00pm

    • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th

    • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!

    • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days next week!)


Friday june 1 st nb pg 444
FRIDAY, JUNE 1 molecule. Molecules that have ST (NB PG 44)

  • Obj: Answer MCAS questions related to Smells

  • Lang. Obj: use correct terms for atoms and the PT

  • HW: make up work!

  • Announcements:

    • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th, 2:00pm

    • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th

    • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!

    • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days next week!)


Friday june 1 st nb pg 445
FRIDAY, JUNE 1 molecule. Molecules that have ST (NB PG 44)

  • Obj: Answer MCAS questions related to Smells

  • Lang. Obj: use correct terms for atoms and the PT

  • HW: make up work!

  • Announcements:

    • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th, 2:00pm

    • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th

    • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!

    • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days next week!)


Friday june 1 st nb pg 446
FRIDAY, JUNE 1 molecule. Molecules that have ST (NB PG 44)

  • Obj: Answer MCAS questions related to Smells

  • Lang. Obj: use correct terms for atoms and the PT

  • HW: make up work!

  • Announcements:

    • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th, 2:00pm

    • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th

    • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!

    • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days next week!)


Friday june 1 st nb pg 447
FRIDAY, JUNE 1 molecule. Molecules that have ST (NB PG 44)

  • Obj: Answer MCAS questions related to Smells

  • Lang. Obj: use correct terms for atoms and the PT

  • HW: make up work!

  • Announcements:

    • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th, 2:00pm

    • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th

    • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!

    • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days next week!)


Friday june 1 st nb pg 448
FRIDAY, JUNE 1 molecule. Molecules that have ST (NB PG 44)

  • Obj: Answer MCAS questions related to Smells

  • Lang. Obj: use correct terms for atoms and the PT

  • HW: make up work!

  • Announcements:

    • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th, 2:00pm

    • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th

    • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!

    • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days next week!)


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