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Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training: Task O-2024. Navigation and Position Determination for Scanners. Navigational Terms. Navigation Terms. Course - planned or actual path of the aircraft over the ground True course Magnetic course Heading - direction the aircraft is pointing

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Minnesota wing aircrew training task o 2024
Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training: Task O-2024

Navigation and Position Determination for Scanners



Navigation terms
Navigation Terms

  • Course - planned or actual path of the aircraft over the ground

    • True course

    • Magnetic course

  • Heading - direction the aircraft is pointing

  • Drift - the effect of wind

  • Drift correction - degrees added to or subtracted from aircraft heading

  • Nautical mile (nm) - measurement used in air navigation

  • Knots (kts) - nautical miles per hour



Latitude and longitude
Latitude and Longitude

  • Where they cross defines a point on the earth

  • By convention, latitude is stated first

  • Latitude is Based on Earth’s motion

    • Axis of rotation defines poles and Equator

  • Arbitrary point of Greenwich, England was chosen for ‘prime meridian’.


Latitude
Latitude

North Latitudes

Equator

  • Parallels

  • Measure How Far North or South of Equator

  • Zero Degrees is Equator

  • “90 Degrees North” is the North Pole

  • “90 Degrees South” is the South Pole

South Latitudes


Longitude

West Longitude

Prime Meridian

East Longitude

Longitude

  • Half Great Circles Intersecting at the Poles

  • Measure How Far East or West of England

  • Zero Degrees is Prime Meridian (England)

  • Numbers between 0 and 180 are either East or West Longitude

  • 180 Degrees is opposite side of globe from England

    • near international date line in Pacific Ocean


Where s minnesota

Twin Cities

Northern Minneapolis is at 45 Degrees North (half way between the Equator and North Pole!)

93 Degrees West is roughly the Eastern edge of St. Paul.

The Northwest corner of the state:

Exactly 49 Degrees North

Roughly 97 Degrees West

Where’s Minnesota?


How big is one degree
How Big is One Degree?

  • Degrees of Latitude are always the same distance apart, about 60 Nautical Miles

  • Degrees of longitude vary in distance – near the poles the lengths are quite small.

    • In Minnesota, a degree of longitude is about 40 to 44 Nautical Miles across


Dividing degrees into smaller units
Dividing Degrees into Smaller Units

  • A ‘Minute’: 1/60th of a Degree

    • roughly a mile in size

  • Minutes are usually broken down into tenths of minutes

    • Alternatively, a ‘Second’ is 1/60th of a minute


Expressing latitude and longitude in degrees and minutes
Expressing Latitude and Longitude in Degrees and Minutes

  • Small high circle after number denotes degrees

  • Apostrophe after number denotes minutes

  • Example: Minneapolis Flying Cloud Airport

    44o 49.63’ N 93o 27.43’ Wread as…44 degrees 49.63 minutes North 93 degrees 27.43 minutes West


Lat long on chart
Lat/Long on chart

Lines of latitude and longitude on sectional chart




Expressing direction the compass rose
Expressing Direction: The Compass Rose

360

330

30

N

300

60

W

E

270

90

240

120

S

210

150

180


Magnetic variation1
Magnetic Variation

PHYSICAL POLE

MAGNETIC POLE

  • The magnetic pole and physical pole are not co-located

  • The difference in heading for the two poles is measured and referred to as magnetic variation

  • Near the magnetic pole the difference can be substantial


Magnetic variation in the us
Magnetic Variation in the US

Westerly Variation

Easterly Variation

+25º

+20º

-15º

+15º

-5º

+5º

-10º

-0º

+10º

Agonic Line



Converting true course to magnetic course
Converting True Course to Magnetic Course

  • For East Variation, subtract from True Course

    True Course – Variation = Magnetic Course

  • For West Variation, add to True Course

    True Course + Variation = Magnetic Course

  • Mnemonic: “East is least, West is best”

    • “Least” should make you think of subtraction

    • Rule is reversed if one wishes to convert a Magnetic course to a True course.



Special use airspace
Special-Use Airspace

  • Military Operating Area (MOA)

    • Military may be conducting high-speed operations

    • VFR aircraft are not prohibited

  • Military Training Routes

    • Instrument routes (IR)

    • Visual routes (VR)

  • Restricted Areas

    • Military may be conducting air-to-ground bombing or gunnery practice

    • No other aircraft are allowed



Chart reading
Chart Reading

  • Sectional Aeronautical Charts

    • 1 to 500,000

    • Medium to slow speed aircraft

  • Types of Information

    • Topographical

    • Aeronautical

    • Legend


Sectional charts1
Sectional Charts

  • Publication Schedule

  • Legend changes somewhat over time

  • Four Charts Needed to Cover Minnesota

    • Twin Cities

    • Omaha

    • Green Bay

    • Chicago


Sectional chart contents
Sectional Chart Contents

  • Physical Geographic Features

    • Areas: Water, Cities

    • Lines: Roads, Power Lines, Railroads

    • Landmarks: Race Tracks, Lookout Towers

    • Vertical obstructions

    • Maximum Elevation by Quadrangle


Sectional chart contents1
Sectional Chart Contents

  • Aeronautical Features

    • Airports

    • Airspace Boundaries

    • Radio Navigation Facilities







Railroad

Seaplane Base

Power Line

Airport2 paved runwaysWeather on 118.375MHzField elev. 1424Traffic Frequency 123.0 MHzFuel available

MaximumElevationFigure

Vertical Obstruction(2549 Ft. MSL, 1192 Ft. AGL)


Airport with Control Tower

Low LevelMilitary Training Route

Lookout Tower

Parachute Jump Area


Airportno paved runwaysfuel available

Special Use Airspace

Restricted Airspace

Military AirportWith Control Tower


Class ‘B’ Airspace

Class ‘D’ Airspace

Ultralight Area





Pilotage
Pilotage

  • Navigation by visual cues

  • Uses recognizable landmarks

  • Correlate with sectional charts

  • Takes practice

    • Familiar things look radically different from the air

    • Seasons make a difference, especially winter

    • Be careful using lakes – be sure of the shape and placement next to other features

    • Difficult to use in sparse areas

    • Difficult at night


Pilotage tricks
Pilotage tricks

  • Tricks:

    • Look for trees to find creeks, rivers, and towns


Position determination
Position Determination

  • Sectional or Map

    • Work from larger to smaller

    • Work from a known location to present location

    • Watch the scale on maps

    • Remain suspicious if all points don’t seem to line up right

    • Use groups of 3 characteristics to verify position


Keeping track of position
Keeping Track of Position

  • Maintain positional awareness from takeoff to landing

  • Finger on the map method using visual landmarks

  • If necessary, ask the pilot or observer to determine position using GPS and/or VOR




Low level navigation1
Low Level Navigation

THE DANGER

  • The biggest single problem is crew workload

  • Your perception of speed varies with altitude

    SPECIAL ATTENTION

  • Man-made obstructions

  • Air crew duties

  • These items should be covered during the briefing.





Obstacles and Other Dangers

LOW-FLYING, HEAVY AIRCRAFT



Cap grid system1
CAP Grid System

  • Overlays standard sectional maps

  • Subdivides the map into distinct working areas

  • Each grid is 1/4° of latitude by 1/4° of longitude (15 minutes square) and is assigned a number

  • A grid is identified by a Sectional Chart name plus a number

    • Example: Twin Cities Grid 444 (St. Cloud Area)

  • Grids are further divided into sub-grids labeled A, B, C, and D

  • Each sectional has a standard for assigning grid numbers — for areas of overlap the grid number of the most westerly chart is used


45 30’ N

46 00’ N

94 00’ W

93 30’ W

o

o

o

o

Sectional Grid System

30’ x 30’

Aeronautical

Chart Divison


15’ x 15’

15’ x 15’

15’ x 15’

15’ x 15’

93 45’

45 45’

45 30’ N

46 00’ N

93 30’ W

94 00’ W

o

o

o

o

o

o

Sectional Grid System


Cap grid system2
CAP Grid System

159 ADB

159 A

  • A grid can be divided into quarter grids 7 ½ Minutes square in size

  • Quarter-grids are labeled A, B, C, and D

    • Example: Twin Cities Grid 159A(The Northwest quarter of TC Grid 159)

  • Letters are used to define sub-grids

102-15 W

102-00 W

36 15’ N

A

B

B

A

B

C

D

C

36-07.5’ N

102 11.25 W

D

C

36-00 N

102-07.5 W

102 15’ W

102-00 W


Standardized latitude longitude grid system
Standardized Latitude/Longitude Grid System

36/102 ADB

36/102 AA

  • This system does not require special numbering

  • Lat-long of lower right corner defines the grid

  • Letters are used to define sub-grids

103-00 W

102-00 W

37-00 N

A

B

B

A

B

C

D

C

36-30 N

102-45 W

D

C

36-00 N

102-30 W

103-00 W

102-00 W


Making grid charts
Making Grid Charts

  • You can use a new sectional — normally not updated unless it gets worn out

  • Use a hi-lighter (not pink) to mark grid boundaries on the chart using a long ruler

  • Mark grid identification in black ink for easy visibility

  • You should always keep a current sectional with you even if you have a sectional which is marked with grids


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