Introduction to philosophy
Download
1 / 44

Introduction to Philosophy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 205 Views
  • Updated On :
loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Introduction to Philosophy' - chelsey


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Introduction to philosophy l.jpg

Introduction to Philosophy

Philosophical Terms

Logic

Things you ought to know.


What is philosophy l.jpg
What is Philosophy?

  • The study of philosophy involves critical thinking. Critical thinking, the engagement of the thinker in rational deliberation- investigation, assessment of arguments, and assessment of justification, is a skill that is necessary in all aspects of our daily life as citizens, professionals and persons.


You must think l.jpg
You must Think!

  • Critical thinking is more than a regurgitating answers for multiple choice exams! Assessment and evaluation is much broader, and more important, than giving meaningless busy work. You’ll never see a multiple choice exam in one of my classes- ever!


Learning how to think l.jpg
Learning how to Think.

  • I do not believe that philosophy should be reduced to such a ridiculous state- a mere caricature of what it means to engage in rational thought. Most courses trivialize their subject by boiling down the course content to a few exam questions- Facts and figures that will be forgotten as soon as your course finishes.


Critical thinking exams l.jpg
Critical Thinking Exams

  • The goal of this course is to provide you with knowledge and skills that you can apply to your daily life. "Critical Thinking" exams are becoming part of the college curriculum. Students in nursing school at MDC take a critical thinking exam each semester. If they do not pass then exam, they fail and must do remediation- even though they passed their classes! In the business world, employees must be able to solve problems and create solutions- these are skills that will serve you for the rest of your life.


Fcat mentality l.jpg
FCAT Mentality

  • If you live in Florida, then you know about the FCAT. The FCAT is a high school competency exam that "measures" what you learned in high school. What has developed is what I call the "FCAT complex". It is the idea that learning can only take place if there is some "measurable" gain. It is a sickness that has now crept into higher education.


The fcat view l.jpg
The FCAT view…

  • Some, in the college, claim that we must measure learning outcomes by means of standardized assessment. The business model of education has stifled intellectual curiosity and growth. It is the reason the state of Florida limits your funding and the number of credits you can receive financial aid for. All most students want to know when they hear a lecture is information that is going to be on the final- if they aren't going to be tested on it, they don't want to learn it.


Education has intrinsic value l.jpg
Education has Intrinsic Value!

  • Education is much more important, and has a far greater value, than can be measured by some pedantic assessment. As students of philosophy you must be willing to employ rationality. You must be able to justify your views in a coherent way.


Open your mind l.jpg
Open your Mind!

  • You must be willing to open your mind to new ideas and new possibilities- if you hold fast to your indoctrinated beliefs, you are going to have trouble understanding the content in this course. This course deals with abstract questions and topics, many of which you may have never considered. If you have an open mind and put forth a consistent effort you will do fine in this course!


Philosophy the love of wisdom l.jpg
Philosophy- The love of wisdom

  • Divisions of Philosophy

    • Epistemology: Theory of Knowledge

    • Metaphysics: Nature of Existence

    • Ethics: Study of Right and Wrong

    • Political Philosophy

    • Philosophy of Religion

    • Aesthetics

    • Eastern Philosophy

    • Logic


Philosophy of l.jpg
Philosophy of _______

  • Philosophy of….

  • Education

  • Law

  • Science

  • Physics

  • Biology

  • Mathematics

  • Psychology


Logic l.jpg
Logic

  • The science of rational thought.

  • Formal tools or ways of reasoning.


Rhetoric l.jpg
Rhetoric

  • The art of persuading people.


Terms of logic l.jpg
Terms of Logic

  • Formal

  • Informal

  • Deductive

  • Inductive

  • Fallacy


Formal and informal logic l.jpg
Formal and Informal Logic

  • Formal logic- employ a structured argument with a set of premises and one conclusion.

  • 1.If P then Q

  • 2. P

  • 3. Therefore Q


Deductive logic l.jpg
Deductive Logic

  • Deductive logic-

  • If the structure of the argument is VALID

  • And if the premises are TRUE or SOUND then the CONCLUSION must be TRUE!

  • 1. PQ 1. PQ

  • 2. P 2. Q

  • 3. Q 3. P

  • Valid Invalid


Deductive logic17 l.jpg
Deductive Logic

  • Deductive logic-

  • If the structure of the argument is VALID

  • And if the premises are TRUE or SOUND then the CONCLUSION must be TRUE!

  • 1. PQ 1. PQ

  • 2. P 2. Q

  • 3. Q 3. P

  • Valid Invalid


Inductive logic l.jpg
Inductive Logic

  • Practical knowledge- Inductive logic or reasoning.

  • 1. I have measured 1000 triangles and the sum of the internal angles always adds up to 180 degrees.

  • 2. Therefore the next triangle I measure, the angles will add up to 180 degrees.


Fallacies l.jpg
Fallacies

  • A Fallacy is a logical defect in an argument.

  • There are formal or structural fallacies and informal fallacies which are flaws in thinking.


Argument ad hominem l.jpg
Argument ad Hominem

  • Argue that a proposition must be false, because of the person making the argument.

  • This is a Fallacy in reasoning- you should attack the argument not the person making it.


Appeal to emotion l.jpg
Appeal to Emotion

  • Try to prove an argument based upon sympathy or an appeal to emotion-

  • This is a Fallacy in reasoning- emotions are irrelevant to the structure of an argument and the validity of its conclusion.

  • This type of thinking can be a fallacy.


Appeal to nature l.jpg
Appeal to Nature

  • Some people argue that we should look to nature for what is right or good.

  • But what does it mean to be natural?

  • Because it is “natural” is it better?

  • This type of thinking can be a fallacy.


Appeal to the people or majority l.jpg
Appeal to the People or Majority

  • Some argue that the majority must be right?

  • Was the majority right when the majority of people thought slavery was okay? Or the majority is Nazi Germany thought concentration camps were good ideas?

  • This type of thinking can be a fallacy.


Appeal to tradition l.jpg
Appeal to Tradition

  • Some argue that since it has always been that way, it should continue to be that way.

  • Traditional marriage, traditional family… the traditional family servant or slave.

  • Traditions can be important, but they are not all equally rational.

  • This type of thinking can be a fallacy.


Appeal to religion l.jpg
Appeal to Religion

  • Some persons appeal to religion. With 10000 different ones, how are we to choose the “right” one.

  • Even people with the same religion disagree about what is moral.


Straw man l.jpg
Straw man

  • This is a technique where you misrepresent the views of the opponent by making there argument seem weaker or (dumber) than it is.

  • This is a fallacy because you are not addressing the real issue, and have proved nothing.


Red herring l.jpg
Red Herring

  • In this fallacy you argue against something that is not even at issue.

  • Example;

    “Embryonic” Stem Cell Debate



Begging the question l.jpg
Begging the Question

  • You assume the conclusion. The argument is circular.

  • 1. God is all powerful,

  • 2. God is All knowing,

  • 3. God is all good.

  • 4. Therefore, God Exist.


False dilemma l.jpg
False Dilemma

  • In this situation, an argument is given which ignores viable alternatives:

  • 1. If you don’t believe in God, then you will go to Hell….

  • 2. Therefore, you’d better believe in God.

  • Well, maybe there is no heaven or hell.


Example from animal rights l.jpg
Example from Animal Rights

  • Descartes:

  • 1. If you do not have a soul,

  • Then you do not have rights.

  • 2. Animals do not have souls.

  • 3. Therefore, Animals do not have rights.


Kant animal rights l.jpg
Kant- Animal Rights

  • 1. If you do not have rationality;

  • Then you do not have Rights.

  • 2. Animals do not have rationality.

  • 3. Therefore, Animals do not have rights.


Reductio ad um serdum l.jpg
Reductio ad um Serdum

  • 1. If you do not have rationality;

  • Then you do not have Rights.

  • 2. Babies do not have rationality

  • 3. Therefore, Babies do not have rights.


Rationality moral responsibility l.jpg
Rationality/ Moral Responsibility

  • 1. If you do not have rationality;

    then you do not have Moral Responsibility.

  • 2. Animals do not have rationality.

  • 3. Therefore, Animals do not have Moral Responsibility.


Utilitarianism animal rights l.jpg
Utilitarianism: Animal rights

  • 1. If you have the capacity to feel pain or pleasure, then you have rights.

  • 2. Animals have the capacity to feel pain and pleasure.

  • 3. Therefore: Animals have rights.


People have rights too l.jpg
People have Rights too

  • 1. If you have the capacity to feel pain or pleasure, then you have rights.

  • 2. People have the capacity to feel pain and pleasure.

  • 3. Therefore: People have rights.


Crazy utilitarian argument l.jpg
Crazy Utilitarian Argument

  • 1. People have rights.

  • 2. Animals have rights.

  • 3. Therefore people and animals have the same rights.

  • People are equal to Goats.


Equivocation l.jpg
Equivocation

  • Equivocation in the use of the term “rights”

  • People have the right to drive and vote,

  • Goats have the same “rights” too.


What rights l.jpg
What Rights

  • People have Rights

  • Animals have Rights

  • But it is not specified what rights each have- there is no reason to assume they have the same rights.


Babies goats l.jpg
Babies = Goats

  • Babies can’t vote or drive, and yet they have rights-

  • As such, Goats have the same rights as Babies.


Babies goats41 l.jpg
Babies = Goats

  • 1. People have rights.

  • 2. Animals have rights.

  • 3. Therefore people and animals have the same rights.

  • People are equal to Goats.


Potential rationality l.jpg
Potential rationality

  • 1. If you have the potential for rationality, then you have rights.

  • 2. Babies have the potential for rationality

  • 3. Therefore babies have rights.


Animal potential rationality l.jpg
Animal potential rationality

  • 1.If you have the potential for rationality,

  • Then you have rights.

  • 2. Animals do not have the potential for rationality

  • 3. Therefore animals do not have rights.


Potential rationality applied l.jpg
Potential Rationality Applied

  • Mentally handicapped people and fetuses, people with brain injuries, people in comas or vegetative states all lack the potential for rationality- as such they lack rights.


ad