Grammar complements phrases clauses sed 340
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Grammar Complements, Phrases, & Clauses SED 340. Complements. A complement is a word or group of words that completes the meaning begun by the subject and verb. Four kinds: direct objects, indirect objects, predicate nominatives, and predicate adjectives

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Grammar Complements, Phrases, & Clauses SED 340

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Grammar complements phrases clauses sed 340

Grammar

Complements, Phrases, & Clauses

SED 340


Complements

Complements

  • A complement is a word or group of words that completes the meaning begun by the subject and verb.

  • Four kinds: direct objects, indirect objects, predicate nominatives, and predicate adjectives

  • Two are affected by the action of the verb

  • Predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives are both called subject complements.


Direct objects

Direct Objects

  • The direct object receives the action expressed by the verb or names the result of the action.

  • Examples:

    1. She drank the soda.

    2. I signed the check.


Indirect objects

Indirect Objects

  • Indirect objects precede the direct object and tell to whom or what or for whom or what the action of the verb is done.

  • Examples:

    • My mom gave me a present.

    • Bob sent us the memo on Thursday.


Subject complements

Subject Complements

  • A subject complement is a word which follows a linking verb and refers to (explains or describes) the subject.

  • Two kinds: predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives


Predicate nominatives

Predicate Nominatives

  • Predicate nominatives are nouns or pronouns.

  • Examples:

    1. She is a secretary.

    2. It was him.


Predicate adjectives

Predicate Adjectives

  • Predicate adjectives are adjectives which modify the subject.

  • Examples:

    • She is pretty.

    • My dog is lazy.


Complements1

Complements


Phrases

Phrases

  • A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and does not contain a verb and its subject.

  • Five kinds: prepositional, adjective, adverb, verbal, and appositive


Prepositional phrases

Prepositional Phrases

  • A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begin with a preposition and usually ends with a noun or pronoun.

  • Examples:

    1. Please put the paper in the basket.

    2. I found ten apples under the tree.


Adjective phrases

Adjective Phrases

  • An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun.

  • Examples:

    • That girl in the car is my sister.

    • The disk on the table is his.


Adverb phrases

Adverb Phrases

  • An adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.

  • Examples:

    1. The pine tree was planted in the back yard.

    2. I ran from the dog.


Verbals and verbal phrases

Verbals and Verbal Phrases

  • A verbal is a word that is formed from a verb but it is used in a sentence as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

  • A verbal phrase is a group of related words that contains a verbal.

  • Three kinds: participles, gerunds and infinitives


Participles and participial phrases

Participles and Participial Phrases

  • A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective.

  • A participial phrase is a group of related words that contains a participle and that acts as an adjective.

  • Examples:

    1. Running through the forest, the girl enjoyed the crisp air.

    2. Swimming to the surface, the fish swallowed the worm.


Gerunds and gerund phrases

Gerunds and Gerund Phrases

  • A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as a noun.

  • A gerund phrase is a group of related words that includes the gerund.

  • Examples:

    1. Swimming is my favorite thing to do in the summer.

    2. Washing the dishes is my daily chore.


Infinitives and infinitive phrases

Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases

  • An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

  • An infinitive has the word to directly before the base form of the verb.

  • An infinitive phrase is a group of related words that includes the infinitive.

  • Examples:

    1. I would like to go to Europe.

    2. He needs to read the whole book by tomorrow.


Appositives and appositive phrases

Appositives and Appositive Phrases

  • An appositive is a noun or pronoun that explains the noun or pronoun it follows.

  • An appositive phrase is made up of an appositive and its modifiers.

  • Most of the time set apart from the rest of the sentence with commas, but if the appositive is necessary to the meaning of the sentence or is closely related to the word it follows, no commas are necessary

  • Examples:

    1. Susan, the girl in the front row, is reading a book.

    2. The movie Lord of the Rings is his favorite.


Phrases1

Phrases


Clauses

Clauses

  • A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb which forms part of a sentence.

  • Independent or dependent (subordinate)

  • Three kinds: adjective, adverb, and noun


Independent and dependent clauses

Independent and Dependent Clauses

  • An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence.

  • A dependent clause or subordinate clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone.


Adjective clauses

Adjective Clauses

  • An adjective clause is a subordinate clause used as an adjective to modify a noun or a pronoun.

  • An adjective clause almost always begins with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, what, and that)

  • Examples:

    1. The girl who is sitting in the front row is my best friend.

    2. The car that is bright red is speeding.


Adverb clauses

Adverb Clauses

  • An adverb clause is a subordinate clause used as an adverb.

  • Examples:

    1. When I smiled at him he waved.

    2. Because she wakes up early, she is always on time.


Noun clauses

Noun Clauses

  • A noun clause is a subordinate clause used as a noun.

  • Can be used as a subject, a complement, or an object of the preposition

  • Examples:

    1. They asked who won.

    2. My friend asked whoever was able to please stand.


Clauses1

Clauses


Grammar complements phrases clauses sed 340

Questions???


Grammar web sites

Grammar Web Sites

  • http://englishplus.com/grammar/

  • http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/

  • http://a4esl.org/q/j/

  • http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/eduweb/grammar


Grammar books

Grammar Books

  • Prentice Hall Reference Guide to Grammar Usage (5th Ed.) By: Muriel Harris

  • The Writer’s Pocket Handbook By: Alfred Rosa and Paul Eschholz

  • Guide to Rapid Revision (8th Ed.) By: Daniel Pearlman and Paula Pearlman

  • English Grammar: Language as Human Behavior (2nd Ed.) By: Anita K. Barry


More grammar books

More Grammar Books

  • Painless Grammar By: Rebecca Elliott, Ph.D.

  • Nitty-Gritty Grammar & More Nitty-Gritty Grammar By: Edith H. Fine & Judith P. Josephson

  • Essentials of English Grammar (2nd Ed.) By: L. Sue Baugh


M zahoor shah bs commerce 1st semester qacc

M. Zahoor ShahBS Commerce1st SemesterQACC


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