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Design Methodology. 100,000,000. 10,000,000. 1,000,000. 10,000,000. 100,000. 58%/Yr. compound. 1,000,000. Complexity growth rate. 10,000. 100,000. Logic Transistors per Chip (K). Productivity (Trans./Staff-Month). 10,000. 1,000. 100. 1,000. Productivity growth rate. 10. 100.

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the design productivity challenge

100,000,000

10,000,000

1,000,000

10,000,000

100,000

58%/Yr. compound

1,000,000

Complexity growth rate

10,000

100,000

Logic Transistors per Chip (K)

Productivity (Trans./Staff-Month)

10,000

1,000

100

1,000

Productivity growth rate

10

100

21%/Yr. compound

1981

1985

1989

1993

1997

2001

2005

2009

The Design Productivity Challenge

Logic Transistors per Chip (K)

Productivity (Trans./Staff-Month)

1981

1983

1985

1987

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

A growing gap between design complexity and design productivity

Source: ITRS’97

the custom approach
The Custom Approach

Intel 4004

Courtesy Intel

transition to automation and regular structures

Intel 4004 (‘71)

Intel 8080

Intel 8085

Intel 80486

Intel 80286

Transition to Automation and Regular Structures

Courtesy Intel

automating design
Automating Design
  • Exploitation By Algorithms
    • Regular Structures
    • Logic Synthesis
    • Regularization of Connection
  • Floorplanning (Localization of function)
    • System Level Performance/Power/Cost
    • Allocation of Physical Resources
  • Communication/Interconnect
    • Hierarchy based on Sensitivity to Latency
    • Wires to Link Protocols
design methodology1
Design Methodology
  • Design process traverses iteratively between three abstractions: behavior, structure, and geometry
  • More and more automation for each of these steps
floorplanning
Floorplanning

A Protocol Processor for Wireless

implementation choices

Digital Circuit Implementation Approaches

Custom

Semicustom

Cell-based

Array-based

Standard Cells

Pre-diffused

Pre-wired

Ma

cro Cells

Compiled Cells

(Gate Arrays)

(FPGA\'s)

Implementation Choices
impact of implementation choices
Impact of Implementation Choices

100-1000

Domain-specific processor

(e.g. DSP)

10-100

Embedded microprocessor

Energy Efficiency (in MOPS/mW)

1-10

Hardwired custom

Configurable/Parameterizable

0.1-1

Somewhat

flexible

Flexibility(or application scope)

Fully

flexible

None

implementation strategies
Implementation Strategies
  • PLA
    • Technology confined in cell macros (tiling)
  • Cell based logic
    • Technology confined to cells (area)
    • Both 1-d and 2-d solutions
  • Transistor Arrays (Gate arrays)
    • Technology confined to layers (Below M1 fixed)
pla programmable logic array

Product terms

x

x

0

1

x

2

AND

OR

plane

plane

f

f

0

1

x

x

x

0

1

2

PLA: Programmable Logic Array
two level logic
Two-Level Logic

Every logic function can beexpressed in sum-of-productsformat (AND-OR)

minterm

Inverting format (NOR-NOR) more effective

breathing some new life in plas
Breathing Some New Life in PLAs

River PLAs

  • A cascade of multiple-outputPLAs.
  • Adjacent PLAs are connected via river routing.
  • No placement and routing needed.
  • Output buffers and the input buffers of the next stage are shared.

Courtesy B. Brayton

experimental results
Experimental Results

Area:

RPLAs (2 layers) 1.23

SCs (3 layers) - 1.00,

NPLAs (4 layers) 1.31

Delay

RPLAs 1.04

SCs 1.00

NPLAs 1.09

Synthesis time: for RPLA , synthesis time equals design time; SCs and NPLAs still need P&R.

Also: RPLAs are regular and predictable

Layout of C2670

Standard cell,

2 layers channel routing

Standard cell,

3 layers OTC

Network of PLAs,

4 layers OTC

River PLA,

2 layers no additional routing

2 d cell based hard modules
2-d Cell Based: “Hard” Modules

25632 (or 8192 bit) SRAM

Generated by hard-macro module generator

1 d cell based design standard cells
1-d Cell-based Design (standard cells)

Feedthrough cell

Logic cell

Routing

channel

Rows of

cells

Functional

Routing channel

requirements are

reduced by presence

of more interconnect

layers

module

(RAM,

multiplier,

)

standard cell the new generation
Standard Cell – The New Generation

Cell-structure

hidden underinterconnect layers

standard cell example1
Standard Cell - Example

3-input NAND cell

(from ST Microelectronics):

C = Load capacitance

T = input rise/fall time

soft macromodules
“Soft” MacroModules

Synopsys DesignCompiler

the design closure problem
The “Design Closure” Problem

Iterative Removal of Timing Violations (white lines)

Courtesy Synopsys

gate array sea of gates
Gate Array — Sea-of-gates

Uncommited

Cell

Committed

Cell(4-input NOR)

sea of gate primitive cells
Sea-of-gate Primitive Cells

Using oxide-isolation

Using gate-isolation

sea of gates
Sea-of-gates

Random Logic

Memory

Subsystem

LSI Logic LEA300K

(0.6 mm CMOS)

Courtesy LSI Logic

the return of gate arrays
The return of gate arrays?

Via programmable gate array(VPGA)

Via-programmable cross-point

metal-6

metal-5

programmable via

Exploits regularity of interconnect

[Pileggi02]

pre wired arrays
Pre-wired Arrays:

Classification of prewired arrays (or field-programmable devices):

  • Based on Programming Technique
    • Fuse-based (program-once)
    • Non-volatile EPROM based
    • RAM based
  • Programmable Logic Style
    • Array-Based
    • Look-up Table
  • Programmable Interconnect Style
    • Channel-routing
    • Mesh networks
fuse based fpga
Fuse-Based FPGA

antifuse polysilicon

ONO dielectric

n

antifuse diffusion

+

2

l

Open by default, closed by applying current pulse

From Smith’97

array based programmable logic

I

I

I

I

I

I

5

4

3

2

1

0

Programmable

I

I

I

I

3

2

1

0

I

I

I

I

I

I

OR array

5

4

3

2

1

0

Fixed AND array

O

O

O

O

O

3

2

1

0

O

0

0

Indicates programmable connection

Indicates fixed connection

Array-Based Programmable Logic

Programmable

OR array

Fixed OR array

Programmable AND array

Programmable AND array

O

O

O

O

O

O

3

2

1

3

2

1

PLA (flexible – sizing)

PROM (dense)

PAL (uniform load)

programming a prom

1

X

X

X

2

1

0

: programmed node

NA

NA

f

f

1

0

Programming a PROM
2 input mux as programmable logic block

Configuration

A

B

S

F=

0

0

0

0

0

X

1

X

0

Y

1

Y

0

Y

X

XY

X

0

Y

XY

Y

0

X

X Y

Y

1

X

X +Y

1

0

X

X

1

0

Y

Y

1

1

1

1

2-input mux as programmable logic block

A

0

F

B

1

S

lut based logic cell

4

C

....C

1

4

H1

H2

H0

EC

S/R

D

Bypass

4

control

Logic

Din

F’

G’

H’

YQ

D

SD

function

D

Q

3

D

F

2

D

1

Logic

EC

RD

function

G’

H’

H

1

Y

F

4

S/R

Bypass

Logic

control

XQ

F

Din

F’

G’

H’

SD

3

function

D

Q

F

2

G

F

1

EC

RD

clock

1

H’

X

F’

Multiplexer Controlled

Xilinx 4000 Series

by Configuration Program

LUT-Based Logic Cell

Courtesy Xilinx

array based programmable wiring
Array-Based Programmable Wiring

Interconnect

Point

Programmed interconnection

Input/output pin

Cell

Horizontal

tracks

Vertical tracks

mesh based interconnect network
Mesh-based Interconnect Network

Switch Box

Connect Box

InterconnectPoint

Courtesy Dehon and Wawrzyniek

transistor implementation of mesh
Transistor Implementation of Mesh

Courtesy Dehon and Wawrzyniek

hierarchical mesh network
Hierarchical Mesh Network

Use overlayed mesh

to support longer connections

Reduced fanout and reduced resistance

Courtesy Dehon and Wawrzyniek

altera max
Altera MAX

From Smith97

altera max interconnect architecture

t

PIA

LAB1

LAB2

PIA

t

PIA

LAB6

Altera MAX Interconnect Architecture

column channel

row channel

LAB

Array-based

(MAX 3000-7000)

Mesh-based

(MAX 9000)

Courtesy Altera

field programmable gate arrays fuse based
Field-Programmable Gate ArraysFuse-based

Standard-cell like

floorplan

xilinx 4000 interconnect architecture
Xilinx 4000 Interconnect Architecture

12

Quad

8

Single

4

Double

3

Long

Direct

2

CLB

Connect

3

Long

12

4

4

8

4

8

4

2

Quad

Long

Global

Long

Double

Single

Global

Carry

Direct

Clock

Clock

Chain

Connect

Courtesy Xilinx

ram based fpga
RAM-based FPGA

Xilinx XC4000ex

Courtesy Xilinx

design at a crossroad system on a chip

RAM

500 k Gates FPGA

+ 1 Gbit DRAM

Preprocessing

Multi-

Spectral

Imager

Analog

64 SIMD Processor

Array + SRAM

Image Conditioning

100 GOPS

mC

system

+2 Gbit

DRAM

Recog-

nition

Design at a crossroadSystem-on-a-Chip
  • Embedded applications: cost,performance, and energy are the issues!
  • DSP and control intensive
  • Mixed-mode
  • Software design is crucial
heterogeneous programmable platforms
Heterogeneous Programmable Platforms

FPGA Fabric

Embedded memories

Embedded PowerPc

Hardwired multipliers

Xilinx Vertex-II Pro

High-speed I/O

Courtesy: Xilinx

summary
Summary
  • Design Choice forced by System Tradeoffs
  • Deep Sub-micron Challenges
    • Regularity (Design flexibility at smallest scales)
    • Power consumption!
    • Interconnection Parasitics
    • Nanoscopic Devices/Modules

New circuit solutions are bound to emerge

  • Who can afford design in the years to come?
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