Chemical compounds
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Chemical Compounds. Honors Chemistry. 3 Types of Formulas. Empirical : Smallest whole-number-ratio of atoms or ions in a compound Ex. CH 2 NH 3 Molecular : Tells you the actual number of atoms of an element in a compound Ex. C 2 H 4 N 2 H 6

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Chemical Compounds

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Chemical compounds

Chemical Compounds

Honors Chemistry


3 types of formulas

3 Types of Formulas

  • Empirical: Smallest whole-number-ratio of atoms or ions in a compound

    • Ex. CH2 NH3

  • Molecular: Tells you the actual number of atoms of an element in a compound

    • Ex. C2H4 N2H6

  • Structural: Indicates how the atoms are bonded to each other


How does the mole relate to compounds

How does the mole relate to compounds?

REMEMBER

Atoms are too small to count or mass individually.

It is easier to count many or mass many.

amu gram

(atomic scale) (macroscopic scale)

mole

atoms, ions, molecules, or formula units

Molar Mass= mass, in grams, per 1 mole of a substance units = grams/mole (g/mol)

  • Example: the molar mass of H2O is

18.0 g/mol


Molecular formulas and molar masses are used to determine percent composition

Molecular formulas and molar masses are used to determine Percent Composition

  • Definition: percentage, by mass, of each element

    in a compound

    % Composition = (part/whole) x 100

  • Problems

    • Calculate the % composition of NaCl

      % Na:

      % Cl:

39.3% Na

60.7% Cl


Percent composition of hydrate definition a hydrate is an ionic compound with water embedded in it

Percent Composition of HydrateDefinition: A hydrate is an ionic compound with water embedded in it.

  • Calculate the % water in a hydrate, Mg3(PO4)2. 6H2O.

    molar mass of hydrate =

    molar mass of anhydrate + x(molar mass of water)

    % water =

370.9 g/mol Mg3(PO4)2 . 6H2O

29.1% H2O


How can you identify different types of compounds

How can you identify different types of compounds?

  • Type of Compound Identification

  • Ionic Begins with a metal

  • Covalent Begins with a nonmetal

  • Acid Begins with a hydrogen and is aqueous

  • Hydrate Ionic Compound and Water


Ionic compounds

Ionic Compounds

  • Made from a positively and negatively charged ion

  • Overall charge of the compound is zero

  • Types of Ionic Compounds

    • Binary

    • Ternary


Binary compounds composed of two monatomic ions

Binary Compounds: Composed of two monatomic ions

  • Primary Rules for Charges: YOU MUST KNOW THESE RULES

    1 or IA +1

    2 or IIA+2

    3 or IIIA+3

    15 or VA-3 in binary compounds with metals, H, or NH4+

    16 or VIA-2 in binary compounds with metals, H, or NH4+

    17 or VIIA-1 in binary compounds with metals, H, or NH4+


Chemical compounds

Ionic Compounds – look at charges; roman numerals needed for elements with more than one charge (polyvalent)

a. Binary Compounds – only monatomic ions in compound

sodium chloride

iron(III) sulfide

FeS

NaCl

Fe2S3

iron(II) sulfide


Ionic compounds1

Ionic Compounds

Binary Compounds

HF(g)

AlCl3

Cr2O3

hydrogen fluoride

aluminum chloride

chromium(III) oxide


Ionic compounds2

Ionic Compounds

Ternary Compounds– contain 1/more polyatomic ions in compound

sodium carbonate

chromium(III) oxalate

ammonium sulfate

Na2CO3

Cr2(C2O4)3

(NH4)2SO4


Ionic compounds3

Ionic Compounds

  • Ternary

    Co3(AsO4)2

    CuSO3

    Note for polyatomic ions:

    -ate vs. –ite

    per- and hypo-

cobalt(II) arsenate

copper(II) sulfite


Ionic compounds4

Ionic Compounds

  • magnesium hydroxide

  • calcium sulfate

  • ammonium phosphate

Mg(OH)2

CaSO4

(NH4)3PO4


Chemical compounds

1 extra oxygen

ClO4-1

perchlorate

per_____ ate

ClO3-1

chlorate

the most common form

_______ate

1 less

oxygen

ClO2-1 chlorite

_______ ite

2 less

oxygens

ClO-1

hypochlorite

hypo_____ ite


Now try these

Now try these…

  • sulfite

  • periodate

  • phosphite

  • bisulfite

SO3-2

IO4-1

PO3-3

HSO3-1


Check for understanding

Check for Understanding

MgH2

  • magnesium hydride

  • calcium acetate

  • FeS2O3

  • SnI4

Ca(CH3COO)2

iron (II) thiosulfate

tin (IV) iodide


Molecular compounds formed between 2 nonmetals

Molecular Compounds– formed between 2 nonmetals

*Use prefixes

mono = 1 hexa = 6

di = 2hepta = 7

tri = 3octa = 8

tetra = 4nona = 9

penta = 5deca = 10

Binary Compounds: only 2 elements in the compound; use prefixes and –ide ending

CCl4

N2O5

carbon tetrachloride

dinitrogen pentoxide


More practice

More Practice

  • dihydrogen monoxide

  • nitrogen tetrabromide

  • S2O6

H2O

NBr4

disulfur hexoxide


Hydrates ionic compound with water bonded in its structure

Hydrates– ionic compound with water bonded in its structure

anhydrate . xH2O

  • anhydrate  ionic compound

  • add prefix to indicate # of water molecules

    CuSO4.5H2O

copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate


Acids compounds that produce hydrogen ions in water

Acids – compounds that produce hydrogen ions in water

  • Mineral Acids

    • Binary Acids

      1st word: prefix = hydro

      root formed from anion

      suffix –ide changed to -ic

      2nd word: acid

      HCl(aq)

      HBr(aq)

hydrochloric acid

hydrobromic acid


B oxyacids

B. Oxyacids

  • 1st word: root from anion

    Suffix ate changed to ic

    Suffix ite changed to ous

    **Exceptions: if you have sulf or phos as roots, change the root to sulfur or phosphor

  • 2nd word: acid

    HNO3

    HNO2

    phosphorous acid

Nitric acid

Nitrous acid

H3PO3


Common acids to know

Common Acids to Know

hydrochloric acid

  • HCl

  • H2CO3

  • HClO4

  • H2SO4

  • H3PO4

  • HNO3

  • CH3COOH = HC2H3O2

carbonic acid

perchloric acid

sulfuric acid

phosphoric acid

nitric acid

acetic acid


Salts

Salts

  • Ionic compound composed of a cation (positive ion) and an anion (negative ion) from an acid

  • NaCl

  • CaSO4

  • NaHCO3

  • NaHSO3


Organic compounds

Organic Compounds

  • >11 million compounds

  • Contain a C-C or C-H bond in combination with

    N, O, S, P or halogens

  • Simplest = CH4

  • Most complex = DNA


Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons

  • Only have carbon and hydrogen

  • Simplest organic compounds

  • From petroleum (crude oil)


Organic compounds1

Organic Compounds

Allotropes of carbon

Allotropes: Different forms of an element in same physical state

Catenation: ability of an element to form chains and/or rings of covalently bonded atoms


Structural formula

Structural Formula

  • Indicates the number and types of atoms present in a molecule and also shows the bonding arrangement of the atoms

  • One possible isomer of C4H10

  • Does not show 3D shape


Naming organic compounds

Naming Organic Compounds

  • Alkanes – saturated organic compound

    • Contains only single bonds

    • General Formula: CnH2n+2

  • Alkenes – unsaturated organic compound

    • Contains at least one double bond

    • General Formula: CnH2n

  • Alkynes – unsaturated organic compound

    • Contains at least one triple bond

    • General Formula: CnH2n-2

  • What type of organic compound is C4H10 ?


Naming hydrocarbons

Naming Hydrocarbons

  • Find the longest chain of carbon atoms. Choose the base name that describes the number of carbon atoms in this chain. Use the following endings:

    Alkane (ane), Alkene (ene), Alkyne (yne)


Naming hydrocarbons1

Naming hydrocarbons

  • Number the carbon atoms in this longest chain beginning at the end nearest the 1st branching.

    • If there is branching at equal distances from both ends of the longest chain, begin numbering at the end nearest the branch that is 1st in alphabetical order.

1

2

3

4


Naming alkenes and alkynes

Naming Alkenes and Alkynes

  • Number the carbon atoms in the chain sequentially, beginning at the end nearer the double or triple bond. If the parent chain has more than 3 carbons, insert the number describing the position of the double or triple bond (indicated by its 1st carbon location) before the base name.

1-butene

2-butene


Branches substituents on the main chain

Branches/Substituents on the Main Chain

  • Additional Hydrocarbon branches

    The hydrocarbon branches are called alkyl groups:

    -CH3 methyl -CH2CH2CH3 propyl

    -CH2CH3 ethyl -CH2CH2CH2CH3 butyl

    2)The organic halides are elements from group 17 in the periodic table.

    The prefix can be fluoro-, chloro-, bromo- or iodo-.


Hydrocarbon branches or substituents

Hydrocarbon Branches or Substituents

Assign the name (stem with yl ending) & position number to each substituent or branch. Arrange substituentsin alphabetical order.

The hydrocarbon branches are called alkyl groups:

-CH3 methyl -CH2CH2CH3 propyl

-CH2CH3 ethyl -CH2CH2CH2CH3 butyl


Naming hydrocarbons2

Naming hydrocarbons

  • Use the appropriate prefix to group like substituents: di = 2, tri = 3, tetra = 4, etc. Do not use these prefixes when alphabetizing attached groups

  • Write the name as a single word. Use hyphens to separate numbers & letters and commas to separate numbers. Do not leave any spaces.


Naming alkenes and alkynes1

Naming Alkenes and Alkynes

In naming alkenes and alkynes, the mulitple bond takes positional precedence over substituents on the carbon chain. The double bond is assigned the lowest possible number.

3,3-dimethyl-1-butene

4-methyl-2-pentene


Naming organic halides alkyl halides

Naming Organic Halides (Alkyl Halides)

  • The organic halides are named as halo- derivatives of the parent hydrocarbon. The prefix can be fluoro-, chloro-, bromo- or iodo-.

1-chloropropane

1-chloro-2-methylpropane


Chemical compounds

http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/476/488316/index.html


Alkene examples

Alkene Examples

3,4-dimethyl-3-hexene

3-ethyl-4,6-dimethyl-1-heptene


Naming alkynes

Naming Alkynes

  • Named just like the alkenes except the suffix –yne is added

ethyne

1-butyne

propyne

2-butyne


Alkyne examples

Alkyne Examples

3-methyl-1-butyne

5-methyl-2-hexyne


Arrangement of atoms

Arrangement of Atoms

  • Isomers – compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures

  • More C atoms in formula, more isomers

    • 18 isomers for C8H18

    • 35 isomers for C9H20

    • 75 isomers for C10H22

Isomers of C6H14


Structural isomers

Structural Isomers

  • Isomers in which the atoms are bonded together in different orders.

  • C4H10 (note continuous chain of C atoms)

    butanemethylpropane


Physical properties of structural isomers

Physical Properties of Structural Isomers


Chemical compounds

Ex #1) Butane, C4H10

Ex #2) Butene, C4H8

Ex #3) 2-Butene, C4H8

Ex #4) methyl propene, C4H8

ISOMERS


Chemical compounds

Functional Groupsan atom or group of atoms that is responsible for the specific properties of an organic compound


Diffusion and effusion

Diffusion and Effusion

Diffusion: the mixing of molecules of 2 or more gases due to their molecular motion (spontaneous)

Effusion is the movement of gas atoms or molecules through a small opening. Gases confined in a container randomly pass through a tiny opening in the container.

ex) hole in a tire; soda bottle (CO2 escaping)


Chemical compounds

Graham’s Law: The rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass.

He and SF6 demo


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