TOPEX and JASON SPACEBORNE ALTIMETERS
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TOPEX and JASON SPACEBORNE ALTIMETERS. Jean PLA CNES, Toulouse, France. Summary. Scope of a spaceborne altimeter Frequency plan for TOPEX and JASON Usage of the data Data Assimilation and forecasting. Topex -Jason Mission Objectives: Scope of a spaceborne altimeter.

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Topex and jason spaceborne altimeters

TOPEX and JASON SPACEBORNE ALTIMETERS

Jean PLA

CNES, Toulouse, France


Topex and jason spaceborne altimeters

Summary

Scope of a spaceborne altimeter

Frequency plan for TOPEX and JASON

Usage of the data

Data Assimilation and forecasting


Topex jason mission objectives scope of a spaceborne altimeter

Topex-Jason Mission Objectives: Scope of a spaceborne altimeter

  • Ocean general circulation

  • Intra-seasonal to interannual sea level variations

  • Long term mean sea level changes

  • Tide observation

  • Wind speed mapping and significant wave height at the ocean surface


Objectives of a spaceborne altimeter

Objectives of a spaceborne altimeter


Topex and jason spaceborne altimeters

TOPEX/POSEIDON

JASON 1

JASON 2


Topex and jason spaceborne altimeters

TOPEX/POSEIDON

2500 kg

Jason-1

500 kg

performances

similar to in-flight T/P ones

7 Dec. 2001

TOPEX/POSEIDON (1992) ; JASON-1 (2001) ; JASON-2 (2007-2008)


Frequency plan of topex jason altimeters

Frequency plan of TOPEX/ JASON altimeters

  • C BAND: 5140 to 5460 MHz, 320 MHz bandwidth, linear frequency modulation

    • Fc = 5.3 GHz, antenna gain = 32.2 dBi (3.4° at -3dB), peak power = 17 W, mean power = 0.54 W, PRF = 300 Hz, pulse duration = 105.6 μs

    • 5140 MHz to 5250 MHz, under 4.4: no allocation to EESS (active), no recorded cases of interference

      Services: Aeronautical Radionavigation

      Fixed Satellite (Earth to Space): feeder links of non- GSO satellites in the mobile satellite service

      Mobile

    • WRC(2003): extension from 5460 MHz to 5570 MHz

  • Ku BAND: 13415 MHz to 13735 MHz: 320 MHz bandwidth, linear frequency modulation

    • Fc = 13,575 GHz, antenna gain = 41.5 dBi (1.23° at -3 dB), peak power = 8 W, mean power = 1.52 W, PRF = 1800 Hz, pulse duration = 105.6 μs

    • 13250 MHz to 13750 MHz: allocation to EESS (active):

    • Other services: Aeronautical Radionavigation

      Space Research

  • For C and Ku BANDS: use of large bandwidths (320 MHz) to estimate ionospheric delay and to get unprecendented accuracy: around 1 cm


  • Jason 1

    JASON-1

    Altitude = 1344 km, beam footprint = 77 km


    Jason 1 instrument

    Jason-1 Instrument


    Radiometer jmr

    Radiometer (JMR)

    This instrument collects the natural emission by the ground surface and in the atmosphere at three different (18, 21 and 37 GHz) frequency bands. The goal is to determine the water vapour content and in liquid water in the atmosphere, when combining the whole set of measurements within those bands. Therefore, it is possible to know the correction to be applied to the altimetric measurement. ( NASA)


    Topex and jason spaceborne altimeters

    Orbit error

    Alt. Instr. error

    Ionosphere

    Troposphere

    EM Bias

    From GEOS-3 to Jason-1

    Error budget of altimeter missions

    Centimeters

    100

    90

    80

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    Ocean signal

    20

    10

    0

    T/P

    ERSI

    T/P

    GEOS 3

    SEASAT

    GEOSAT

    (before launch)

    (after launch)

    Jason-1

    (before launch)


    Topex poseidon results

    TOPEX/POSEIDON RESULTS


    Topex poseidon jason achievements

    TOPEX/POSEIDON - JASON Achievements


    Main results

    MAIN RESULTS

    • Rise of the mean sea level of about 3 cm within 10 years according to TOPEX-POSEIDON

    • Complex interaction between the oceans and the atmosphere. An example is El Niño event: warm waters are pushed to the West coast of South America, disrupting normal winter conditions throughout the Pacific ocean. Reliable predictions of El Niño occurrence will lead to better preparation for its widespread impact.


    Topex and jason spaceborne altimeters

    El Niño/La Niña as seen by TOPEX/Poséidon (NASA/CNES)


    Topex and jason spaceborne altimeters

    MERCATOR :

    Towards an integrated, multi-parameter approach of

    ocean modelling and operational forecasting


    Ocean modelling forecasting

    OCEAN MODELLING & FORECASTING

    OCEAN : turbulent & chaotic medium

    Integrated approach necessary with :

    • Space based observations

    • in situ measurements

    • numerical models

    • multi-data analysis & assimilation

      French initiative : MERCATOR

      Process similar to weather forecast

      .


    Topex and jason spaceborne altimeters

    The MERCATOR mission was defined in 1996 by six partner organizations. The project is pursuing three goals:

    • Develop an operational oceanography system

    • Develop downstream oceanography applications

      Mercator Users :

    • « Sea people »

    • « Science people »

    • « Climate people »

    • « Coastal people »


    Mercator towards operational oceanography

    Mercator, towards operational oceanography

    Modelisation & Assimilation

    2002

    1/3°

    1/15°

    2003

    1/15°

    Observation : Satellite & In situ

    1/4°

    2004


    Mercator objectives

    MERCATOR OBJECTIVES

    • For its scientific users, MERCATOR is an operational ocean observatory: by systematically combining, over several years, all the information yielded from observations (measurements reflecting reality) with that provided by the model (a three-dimensional view and a memory of past states), it can produce a view of the ocean that is continuous in both space and time. This integrated view is extremely valuable, as it exists nowhere else. It provides a reference state which can be examined or enhanced … as well as the raw materials to do it.

    • For the ocean, MERCATOR provides information of salinity, state of surface down to 1000 m of depth thanks to the satellite and to the in situ data. The forecast are valid for 2 weeks.


    Topex and jason spaceborne altimeters

    MERCATOR system

    TOPEX, JASON, ...

    CORIOLIS


    Topex and jason spaceborne altimeters

    Altimetry & Oceanography - Operational Organization

    Research

    Assimilation, forecast :

    MERCATOR

    Value-added

    Products

    Altimetry missions :

    Jason, ENVISAT, DORIS/SPOT

    Other space data

    (temperature, salinity,

    colour)

    Users

    In situ Data: ARGO, CORIOLIS


    Oceanography applications

    Navy

    "See without being seen"

    Routing

    "Find the most economical route"

    Fishing

    "Find fish"

    Research

    "Interesting structures to study"

    OCEANOGRAPHY APPLICATIONS


    Topex and jason spaceborne altimeters

    Fisheries

    • need to understand, model and predictthe effects of ocean conditions on fish populations

    • can help locate areas with a higher probability of finding fish andreduce search time and operation costs

    • description of the upper ocean athigh space and time resolution needed

    • start to useexternal information(e.g. SST, ocean colour, altimetry).

    • a global and integrated approach should allow the development of improved products for fisheries and a better management of stocks

    Altimeter product from T/P and ERS-2

    for fisheries in the Indian ocean


    Topex and jason spaceborne altimeters

    MERCATOR : future activities

    The MERCATOR mission seeks to develop and deploy a truly operational oceanography system over the next five years capable of analyzing and predicting ocean conditions around the globe : the Centre for Operational Oceanography (C2O)

    This system will describe and predict ocean conditions over the whole ocean column continuously and in real time, at scales ranging from global phenomena to regional areas.


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