Muscles of the core lumbo pelvic hip complex
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Muscles of the Core-Lumbo-Pelvic-Hip Complex. Core Muscles. The term core refers to the Lumbo-Pelvic-Hip Complex (LPH) It is the center of the body and the beginning point for movement Comprised of about 29 muscles that attach to the spine and/or pelvis

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Core muscles
Core Muscles

  • The term core refers to the Lumbo-Pelvic-Hip Complex (LPH)

  • It is the center of the body and the beginning point for movement

  • Comprised of about 29 muscles that attach to the spine and/or pelvis

  • Involves structures of the lumbar, thoracic, and cervical spine, the pelvic girdle and the hip joint.


Lumbo pelvic hip complex
Lumbo-Pelvic-Hip Complex

  • The lumbo-pelvic-hip complex (core) functions primarily to maintain dynamic postural control by keeping the center of gravity over our base of support during dynamic movements


Core muscles1
Core Muscles

  • Abdominals (Deep to Superficial)

    • Transverse Abdominis

    • Internal and External Oblique

    • Rectus Abdominis

  • Spinal Muscles (Deep to Superficial)

    • Rotatores

    • Semispinalis

    • Mulitifidus

    • QuadratusLumborum

    • Erector Spinae

    • LatissimusDorsi


Core muscles2
Core Muscles

  • Hip Extensors: Gluteus Maximus, Hamstrings

  • Hip Abductors: Gluteus Medius, Gluteus Minimus, Tensor Fascia Lata, Iliopsoas, and Sartorius

  • Hip flexors: Iliopsoas, Rectus Femoris, Tensor Fascia Lata and Pectineus

  • Hip Adductors: Gracilis, Adductor Magnus, Adductor Longus, Adductor Brevis, and Pectineus


Transverse abdominis
Transverse Abdominis

  • The most important abdominal muscle

  • Contracted first before any other muscle


Transverse abdominis1
Transverse Abdominis

  • The deepest layer of abdominal muscles

  • It wraps around the trunk from front to back and from the ribs to the pelvis

  • The muscle fibers run horizontally, similar to a corset or a weight belt

  • It does not move the spine or pelvis

    O: Thoracolumbar Fascia, Iliac Crest, Costal Cartilages of Ribs #7-12

    I: Linea Alba, Pubic Crest

    A: Facilitates forceful expiration of air from the lungs

  • Stabilizes the spine

  • Compression of abdominal contents


Integrated function of transverse abdominis
Integrated Function of Transverse Abdominis

  • Works synergistically with the internal oblique, multifidus, and erector spinae to stabilize the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex


Transverse abdominis exercises
Transverse Abdominis Exercises

  • Draw In (supine, quadruped, prone, seated, kneeling or standing)

  • Attempt to pull the bellybutton through the spine

  • Or imagine trying to zip up the world’s tightest pair of pants

  • Attempt each position for five reps held for five to 10 seconds



Internal abdominal oblique
Internal Abdominal Oblique

  • Deep to external oblique and lies just above transverse abdominis

    O: Inguinal Ligament, Iliac Crest, and ThoracolumbarAponeurosis

    I: Last three ribs (10-12), Pubic Crest, Linea Alba

    A: Flexion of Trunk

  • Lateral Flexion of Trunk

  • Contralateral Rotation of the Trunk

  • Compression of Abdominal Contents


Integrated function of internal oblique
Integrated Function of Internal Oblique

  • Assists in eccentric deceleration of trunk extension

  • Assists in eccentric deceleration of trunk rotation

  • Works synergistically with the transverse abdominis, multifidus, and erector spinae to stabilize the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex


External abdominal oblique
External Abdominal Oblique

  • Located externally in the abdomen with diagonal fibers

  • Lateral to the rectus abdominis

  • “Pocket Muscles” (put your hand into a coat pocket and your fingers would be pointing along the direction of the fibers)

  • It’s fibers meet latissimus dorsi at ribs # 10-12


External oblique
External Oblique

O: Lower 8 ribs (# 5-12)

I: Anterior Iliac Crest of Pelvis and Abdominal Aponeurosis

A: Flexion of the Trunk

  • Lateral Flexion of the Trunk

  • Contralateral Rotation of the Trunk

  • Compression of Abdominal Contents


Integrated function of external obliques
Integrated Function of External Obliques

  • Assists in eccentric deceleration of trunk extension

  • Assists in eccentric deceleration of trunk rotation

  • Assists in dynamic stabilization of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex


External and internal obliques
External and Internal Obliques

  • Force Couple:

    • Two separate muscle groups on opposing sides of the body work together to achieve the same movement goal.

    • One movement will have two agonists on opposite sides of the body.


How obliques cause trunk movement
How Obliques Cause Trunk Movement

Trunk Flexion

  • Right and Left sides of Internal and External Obliques

    Lateral Trunk Flexion

  • Lateral flexion right : Right External Oblique and Right Internal Oblique

  • Lateral flexion left: Left External Oblique and Left Internal Oblique


How obliques cause trunk movement1
How Obliques Cause Trunk Movement

Trunk Rotation

  • Rotation Right : Left External Oblique and Right Internal Oblique

  • Rotation left : Right External Oblique and Left Internal Oblique


Rectus abdominis anatomy
Rectus Abdominis-Anatomy

  • The Rectus Abdominis is a superficial muscle bisected by tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is formed by aponeurosis.


The Rectus Abdominis is a superficial muscle bisected by tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • Tendinous Inscriptions

    • Three fibrous bands that transect and divide the rectus abdominis.


The Rectus Abdominis is a superficial muscle bisected by tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • Rectus Sheath

    • Sheath (protective covering)

    • Anterior and posterior sections

    • Lays under and over RA


The Rectus Abdominis is a superficial muscle bisected by tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • Aponeurosis

    • Flattened tendons with a shiny, whitish-silvery color.

    • Sparingly supplied with blood vessels and nerves.

    • When dissected, are papery, and peel off by sections.


Rectus abdominis
Rectus Abdominis tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • The two rectus sheaths (left and right) meet in the midline of the abdomen and form the linea alba

  • Linea Alba: The tendinous band along the midline of the rectus abdominis muscle.


Rectus abdominis1
Rectus Abdominis tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • Rectus means straight

    O: Pubic crest

    I: Xiphoid process of sternum and costal cartilages of 5th, 6th and 7th ribs

    A: Trunk Flexion

  • Compression of Abdominal Contents (expiration, vomiting, expulsion of feces from the intestines and urine from the bladder)

  • Posterior Tilt of the Pelvis


Integrated function of rectus abdominis
Integrated Function of Rectus Abdominis tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • Assists in eccentric deceleration of trunk extension

  • Assists in eccentric deceleration of anterior pelvic tilt

  • Assists in dynamic stabilization of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex


Rectus abdominis exercises
Rectus Abdominis Exercises tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

Common Mistakes Made:

  • Pulling the head with the hands (risking injury to the cervical vertebrae)

  • Not pressing back to the floor

  • Flexing the torso to a fully seated position

    • When straight leg raises or full sit-ups are done, the movement is not trunk flexion but hip flexion.


Multifidus
Multifidus tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • A deep muscle located along the back of the spine very close to the midline.

  • The deep fibers are short and span single vertebral segments.

  • Functions together with transverse abdominis & pelvic floor muscles to stabilize the low back and pelvis BEFORE movement of the arms and/or legs occurs


Multifidus1
Multifidus tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • Important stabilizer of the back

  • Studies have shown people who had low-back pain also had wasting of the multifidus muscle on the side of the back that matched the painful side. The studies also showed that over time back pain did improve.


Multifidus2
Multifidus tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

O: Sacrum, lumbar, and cervical transverse processes

I: Spinous Processes of all Vertebrae

A: Extension of Trunk and Neck

  • Lateral Flexion of Trunk and Neck

  • Contralateral Rotation of Trunk and Neck


Integrated function of multifidus
Integrated Function of Multifidus tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • Assists in eccentric deceleration of trunk flexion

  • Assists in eccentric deceleration of trunk rotation

  • Assists in dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine

  • Provides proprioception (awareness or sense of where the body is in space-up, down, left, right…) during dynamic movements which enhance neuromuscular efficiency


Multifidus3
Multifidus tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • There are lots of exercises that strengthen the multifidus as well as the other back extensor muscles. The only problem is all the extensor muscles will contract with traditional back exercises

  • The multifidus must first be isolated and re-activated through specific isometric exercises then followed up with functional exercises to further strengthen the muscles of the lower-back.


Multifidus exercises
Multifidus Exercises tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

Prone Trunk Extension with Rotation

  • Begin in a prone position

  • Rest your forehead on your hands

  • Retract your scapula

  • Extend the lumbar spine and rotate the upper torso

  • Keep scapula retracted


Quadratus lumborum
Quadratus Lumborum tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • This muscle is shaped like a square located in the back

  • Anterior to quadratuslumborum are the colon, kidney, and diaphragm

    O: Posterior Iliac Crest

    I: 12th Rib and Transverse Process of L1-L4

    A: Elevation of Pelvis

  • Lateral Trunk Flexion

  • Extension of Trunk

  • Depression of 12th Rib


Integrated function of quadratus lumborum
Integrated Function of Quadratus Lumborum tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • Assists in eccentric deceleration of lateral trunk flexion

  • Works synergistically with the hip abductors and adductors as the primary frontal plane stabilizers


Quadratus lumborum1
Quadratus Lumborum tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • The quadratus lumborum can elevate the pelvis sometimes called “hip hiking”.

  • Do not confuse this with flexing the femur

  • To feel how the pelvis moves using the quadratus lumborum stand with feet apart and weight equal on both feet. Shift your weight from side to side while lifting up your toe on the side that you are shifting away from.


Quadratus lumborum2
Quadratus Lumborum tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • Pulls 12th rib inferiorly causing thoracic cavity to expand which creates more space for the lungs to expand


Quadratus lumborum exercises
Quadratus Lumborum Exercises tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • Horizontal isometric side bridge which can be done from a knee supporting position on the floor or a more challenging version which utilizes a feet supported version.


Erecter spinae
Erecter Spinae tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • Makes the spine erect

  • Divided into three longitudinal columns

  • From lateral to medial they are:

    • Iliocostalis

    • Longissimus

    • Spinalis


Erector spinae
Erector Spinae tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

Iliocostalis:

O: Sacrum, Iliac Crest, and Ribs 3-12

I: Ribs 1-12 and Transverse Process of C4-C7


Erector spinae1
Erector Spinae tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

Longissimus

O:Sacrum, Iliac Crest and Transverse Process of T1-T5

I: Ribs 4-12, Transverse Process of T1-T12 and Mastoid Process of Temporal Bone in Skull (behind ear)


Erector spinae2
Erector Spinae tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

Spinalis

O: Spinous Process of T11-L2 and C7

I: Spinous Process of T5-T12 and C2


Erector spinae3
Erector Spinae tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

Actions:

  • Extension of Trunk, Neck and Head

  • Lateral Flexion of Trunk, Neck and Head

  • Rotation of Trunk, Neck and Head

  • Anterior Tilt of Pelvis


Integrated function of erector spinae
Integrated Function of Erector Spinae tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • Assists in eccentric deceleration of trunk flexion

  • Assists in eccentric deceleration of trunk rotation

  • Assists in eccentric deceleration of lateral trunk flexion

  • Assists in dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine during dynamic movements


Exercises for trunk extensors
Exercises for Trunk Extensors tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • Isometric Trunk Extensions on Floor

  • Trunk Extensions on a SB

  • Trunk Extensions on a Bench


Exercises
Exercises tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

Trunk Extensions

  • Muscles Worked: Erector Spinae, Multifidus, and Semispinalis

  • Common Mistakes Made: “hyperextending” the back past a horizontal position, flexing the spine, and performing the reps too fast.


Exercises1
Exercises tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

Trunk Extensions

  • Possible Risks:

    • By flexing (rounding your back) and hyperextending your spine during this exercise you allow your vertebrae to separate from each other. Through repeated repetition, there is a large possibility of slipping a disk through the vertebrae.

  • To Perform Correctly

    • Slowly bend forward at the waist as far as you can while keeping your back neutral. Do not round your back. Slowly raise your torso until your legs and upper body are in a straight line again. Do NOT arch your back past a straight line!


Belts and wraps
Belts and Wraps tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • Using Belts (knee and/or ankle wraps) For Every Exercise:

  • Common Mistakes Made: Dependence of the weight belt for every exercise.

  • Negative Effect: Weak abdominals and lower back muscles

  • Solution: Avoid wearing the belt and lower your weight so the muscles you weakened due to belt use can recover. Most people use belts only for squats and power exercises. Even this is excessive, unless you are doing maximal weight loads


Belts and wraps1
Belts and Wraps tendinous inscriptions that is covered by the rectus sheath which is made up of aponeurosis

  • Knee and elbow wraps should generally not be used. If you have an injury you should not be lifting, or should reduce the load.

  • Belts can be important at certain times, such as when you are lifting heavy loads with which you can only do a few reps, and when you are learning form on power exercises.


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