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Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE. Tarbuck Lutgens . . Chapter 3. Rocks ( Fulgurite). Rocks. 3.1 The Rock Cycle.  Rocks are any solid mass of mineral or mineral-like matter occurring naturally as part of our planet.  Types of Rocks.

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Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE

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Prentice hall earth science

PrenticeHallEARTH SCIENCE

TarbuckLutgens


Chapter 3

Chapter3

Rocks (Fulgurite)


3 1 the rock cycle

Rocks

3.1 The Rock Cycle

 Rocks are any solid mass of mineral or mineral-like matter occurring naturally as part of our planet.

 Types of Rocks

1. Igneous rock is formed by the crystallization of molten magma.


3 1 the rock cycle1

Rocks

3.1 The Rock Cycle

 Types of Rocks

2. Sedimentary rock is formed from the weathered products of preexisting rocks that have been transported, deposited, compacted, and cemented.

3. Metamorphicrock is formed by the alteration of pre-existing rock deep within Earth (but still in the solid state) by heat, pressure, and/or chemically active fluids.


3 1 the rock cycle2

The Rock Cycle

3.1 The Rock Cycle

 Shows the interrelationships among the three rock types(igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic)

Magma is molten material that forms deep beneath the Earth’s surface.

Lava is magma that reaches the surface.

Weathering is a process in which rocks are broken down by water, air, and living things.

Sediment is weathered pieces of Earth elements.


The rock cycle

The Rock Cycle


3 1 the rock cycle3

Energy That Drives the Rock Cycle

3.1 The Rock Cycle

 Processes driven by heat from the Earth’s interior are responsible for forming both igneous rock and metamorphic rock.

Weathering and the movement of weathered materials are external processes powered by energy from the sun.

 External processes (weathering, etc.) produce sedimentary rocks.


3 2 igneous rocks

Formation of Igneous Rocks

3.2 Igneous Rocks

1. Intrusive igneous rocks are formed when magma hardens beneath Earth’s surface.

2. Extrusive igneous rocks are formed when lava hardens.


Prentice hall earth science

Andesite - Extrusive


3 2 igneous rocks1

Classification of Igneous Rocks

3.2 Igneous Rocks

Igneous rocks can be classified based on their composition and texture.

1. Texture

• Coarse-grained texture is caused by slow cooling resulting in larger crystals (intrusive).

• Fine-grained texture is caused by rapid cooling resulting in smaller, interconnected mineral grains (extrusive).


Prentice hall earth science

Diorite - Intrusive


Course grained igneous texture

Course-Grained Igneous Texture


Fine grained igneous texture

Fine-Grained Igneous Texture


3 2 igneous rocks2

Classification of Igneous Rocks

3.2 Igneous Rocks

1. Texture (continued)

• Glassy texture is caused by very rapid cooling.

• Porphyritic texture is caused by different rates of cooling resulting in varied sized minerals.

2. Composition

• Granitic composition rocks are made mostly of light-colored quartz and feldspar.


Obsidian exhibits a glassy texture

Obsidian Exhibits a Glassy Texture.


Porphyritic igneous texture

Porphyritic Igneous Texture


3 2 igneous rocks3

Classification of Igneous Rocks

3.2 Igneous Rocks

2. Composition (continued)

• Basaltic composition rocks are made mostly of dark-colored silicate minerals and plagioclase feldspar.

• Andesitic composition rocks are between granitic light-color minerals and basaltic composition dark-colored minerals.

• Ultramafic composition rocks are made mostly from iron and magnesium-rich minerals.


Basalt volcanic neck

Basalt (Volcanic Neck)


Classification of igneous rocks

Classification of Igneous Rocks


3 3 sedimentary rocks

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks

3.3 Sedimentary Rocks

Compaction and Cementation

• Compaction is a process that squeezes, or compacts, sediments.

• Cementation takes place when dissolved minerals are deposited in the tiny spaces among the sediments.


3 3 sedimentary rocks1

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks

3.3 Sedimentary Rocks

Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition

• Erosion involves the weathering and the removal of rock.

• Deposition occurs when an agent of erosion—water, wind, ice, or gravity—loses energy and drops sediments.


3 3 sedimentary rocks2

Classification of Sedimentary Rocks

3.3 Sedimentary Rocks

Two Main Groups

1. Clastic sedimentary rocks are composed of weathered bits of rocks and minerals.

• Classified by particle size

• Common rocks include

- Shale (most abundant)

- Sandstone

- Conglomerate


Shale with plant fossils

Shale with Plant Fossils


Conglomerate

Conglomerate


3 3 sedimentary rocks3

Classification of Sedimentary Rocks

3.3 Sedimentary Rocks

Two Main Groups

2. Chemical sedimentary rocks form when dissolved substances precipitate, or separate, from water.

  • Common rocks include

- limestone—most abundant chemical rock

- microcrystalline quartz known as chert, flint, jasper, or agate

- evaporitessuch as rock salt or gypsum

- coal


Fossiliferous limestone

Fossiliferous Limestone


Classification of sedimentary rocks

Classification of Sedimentary Rocks


3 3 sedimentary rocks4

Features of Some Sedimentary Rocks

3.3 Sedimentary Rocks

  • Features of sedimentary rocks are clues to how and where the rocks are formed

  • Fossils are only found in sedimentary rocks – Why?


3 4 metamorphic rocks

Formation of Metamorphic Rocks

3.4 Metamorphic Rocks

Metamorphism means “to change form.”

Most metamorphic changes occur at elevated temperatures and pressures.

Conditions for formation are found a few kilometers below the Earth’s surface and extend into the upper mantle.


3 4 metamorphic rocks1

Formation of Metamorphic Rocks

3.4 Metamorphic Rocks

Contact metamorphism occurs when magma moves into rock.

  • Occurs near a body of magma

  • Changes are driven by a rise in temperature.


3 4 metamorphic rocks2

Formation of Metamorphic Rocks

3.4 Metamorphic Rocks

Regional metamorphism results in large-scale deformation and high-grade metamorphism.

  • Directed pressures and high temperatures occur during mountain building.

  • Produces the greatest volume of metamorphic rock


3 4 metamorphic rocks3

Agents of Metamorphism

3.4 Metamorphic Rocks

Heat

  • Provides the energy needed to drive chemical reactions

Pressure

  • Causes a more compact rock with greater density


Origin of pressure in metamorphism

Origin of Pressure in Metamorphism


3 4 metamorphic rocks4

Agents of Metamorphism

3.4 Metamorphic Rocks

Hydrothermal Solutions

  • Hot water-based solutions escaping from the mass of magma

  • Promote recrystallization by dissolving original minerals and then depositing new ones


3 4 metamorphic rocks5

Classification of Metamorphic Rocks

3.4 Metamorphic Rocks

Two main categories

1. Foliated Metamorphic Rock

  • Has a banded or layered appearance

2. Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rock

  • Does not have a banded texture


Classification of metamorphic rocks

Classification of Metamorphic Rocks


Gneiss typically displays a banded foliated appearance

Gneiss Typically Displays a Banded (Foliated) Appearance


Marble a nonfoliated metamorphic rock

Marble—ANonfoliated Metamorphic Rock


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