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CMM and the SDLC. Michael Dermody September 2010. What is CMMI ?. Capability Maturity Model Integration Is a Trademark owned by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) of Carnegie Mellon University Process Improvement Approach – Improves Performance by improving processes

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Cmm and the sdlc

CMM and the SDLC

Michael Dermody

September 2010


What is cmmi
What is CMMI ?

  • Capability Maturity Model Integration

    • Is a Trademark owned by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) of Carnegie Mellon University

    • Process Improvement Approach – Improves Performance by improving processes

    • Provides organizations with the needed for effective process improvements

    • Framework for appraising the process maturity of the organization

  • According to SEI in 2008, CMMI helps "integrate traditionally separate organizational functions, set process improvement goals and priorities, provide guidance for quality processes, and provide a point of reference for appraising current processes.”



Level 2 characteristics
Level 2 Characteristics

  • Projects are managed and under control

  • Estimating new project tasks is based on actual results from previous projects

  • Realistic commitments are negotiated and managed

  • Plans are documented, progress is tracked, and status is reported appropriately

  • Processes are defined at the project level

  • Project decisions are based on data


Benefits of moving to level 2
Benefits of Moving to Level 2

  • Productivity gains

  • Early defect detection

  • Reduction in time between request and implementation

  • Reduction in post-implementation defects

  • Repeatable processes


Life cycle

Initiate

Analyze

Design

Code

Test

Deliver

Maintain

Life Cycle

  • A life cycle is a description of the approach that a project takes to develop and deliver software. It includes the sequencing of tasks organized by phases

Steps commonto all life cycles


Lifecycles waterfall
Lifecycles - Waterfall




Work products

SW Project Design Documents

SW Project Design

SW

Work Products

  • A work product is any document or deliverable that is used during the entire life cycle as well as any portion of the software that is delivered to the customer

  • The SDLC has templates and procedures for generating required work products



Level 2 key process areas kpa
Level 2 Key Process Areas (KPA)

Focus on Project Management

Requirements

Management

(RM)

Project

Tracking & Oversight

(PTO)

Project

Planning

(PP)

Configuration

Management

(CM)

Process

Quality Assurance

(PQA)


Level 2 kpas
Level 2 KPAs

Manages Project

Requirements Management

Verifies Process

Controls Products


Requirements management rm
Requirements Management (RM)

To establish a common understanding of requirements between the customer and the project and manage any changes to these over the life of the project.

Why?

Agree to an initial

set of software

requirements

Manage further changes to SW

requirements

How?



What is a requirement
What is a Requirement?

Condition or capability that must be met by a system application to satisfy a business request

User Interface

Speed

Cost

Function

All requirements should be testable


Requirements baselined
Requirements Baselined

A document that:

  • Has been formally reviewed, agreed upon, and committed to by means of signoff

  • Serves as the basis for further development

  • Can be changed only through formal change control procedures

Builder Model 101

Cost: $170,000

Bedrooms: 3

Living Room

Kitchen

Dining Room

Expected Completion: April 30


Requirements revised
Requirements Revised

Change Request

- Add Fireplace to Living Room- Build Bookshelves in Living Room - Add Family Room

- Add Porch

Builder Model 101

Cost: $220,000

Bedrooms: 3

Living Room with Fireplace & Bookshelves

Kitchen

Dining RoomFamily Room

Porch

Expected Completion June 30

Add Fireplace &

Install Built-in Bookshelves

Add Family Room

Add Porch


Level 2 kpas1
Level 2 KPAs

Manages Project

Project Planning

Requirements Management

Verifies Process

Controls Products


Project planning pp
Project Planning (PP)

To develop plans and schedules based onthe activities, efforts, risks, and resources associated with satisfying project requirements

Why?

Estimate and

obtain resource

commitments

Identify activities

and

work products

How?

Create the planand the schedule

Identify risks,

issues, and measures

to track


What is a statement of work
What is a Statement of Work?

  • A document that describes the work required to complete a project that consists of:

    • High-level project objectives and scope

    • Identification of customers

    • Imposed standards (management or technical)

    • Constraints (cost, schedule, and resources)

    • External commitments and dependencies

    • Top-level system requirements


What is a project plan

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

6. A defined life cycle for the project including review points

5. References to schedule with resources and milestones

2. Standards, methods, and procedures to be followed and the identified decision makers

1. Project objectives, scope, and assumptions

7. Risk identification and assessment

3. Work products to be created

4. Estimates of size, effort, and cost, and assumptions

9. References to SCM and SQA plans for the project

8. Commitments and dependencies

10. Verification and validation

What is a Project Plan?

A collection of plans describing the technical and nontechnical activities for a project. It governs the management of activities performed by the Software Engineering Process Group (SEPG) for a project.


Software estimation

Tasks Wk 1 Wk2 Wk3 Wk4 Wk5

Plan Testing

Review Test Plan

DevelopScenarios

Peer ReviewScenarios

Software Estimation

  • Use requirements as the high-level basis for beginning the project plan

  • Collect historical data for use in new estimates

  • Break activities down into manageable chunks(for example, < 60 hours of effort or 2 weeks duration)

  • Decompose manageable chunks into smaller process steps


  • Use a standard methodology

  • Identify and document estimating assumptions

  • Develop estimates in effort-hours, not elapsed time

  • Use in budgeting and staffing projects appropriately

Quality

What level of quality is required?

Cost

How much will it cost?

Effort

How much work will it require?

Schedule

When will deliverables be available?

Size

How big is it?

Productivity

How much time is available per week?

Resources

How many people are needed?

What type of skills?

What tools do we need?



Level 2 kpas2
Level 2 KPAs

Manages Project

Project Tracking & Oversight

Project Planning

Requirements Management

Verifies Process

Controls Products


Project tracking oversight pto
Project Tracking & Oversight (PTO)

To have adequate visibility into actual progress, in order to keep the project on track

Why?

Track

accomplishments

and results

Adjust plans to

stay on track

How?

Agree to

changes in

commitments

Track effort, size, risks,costs, and schedule


What to track in the project plan
What to Track in the Project Plan

  • Size, effort, cost, and duration

    • Larger/smaller, more/less complex, early/late?

  • Resources

    • Change in availability, over/under allocations?

  • Schedule/activities

    • Complete/not complete, additional activities?

    • Impact on dependent activities?

  • Risks

    • Resolved, changed, additional risks ?

    • Risk impact or probability changed?


Corrective action tasks
Corrective Action Tasks

  • Adjust plan as deviations from the plan occur

    • Scope, Resources, Schedule

  • Review adjustments and obtain buy-in and commitment

  • Update plans based on requirement changes

  • Manage and mitigate risk


Communication and oversight
Communication and Oversight

  • Internal project status reviews

    • Detail status of activities, schedule, effort, costs, and risks

    • Detail actuals to compare with estimates

  • Periodic senior management reviews

    • Status of accomplishments, issues, and risks

  • Milestone reviews

    • Formal reviews for customers, management. and affected groups at predetermined milestones

    • Progress, accomplishments, issues, risks

  • Ad hoc reviews occur as needed


Level 2 kpas3
Level 2 KPAs

Manages Project

Project Planning

Requirements Management

Project Tracking & Oversight

Verifies Process

Controls Products

Configuration Management


Configuration management cm

Plan for

CM activities

Identify items to put under configuration management

Control

changes to

configured items

Communicate

status of

configuration items

Audit configuration

baselines

Configuration Management (CM)

Why?

To manage the integrity of the project’s work products

How?


Configuration items

User Manual

SW Project Design Documents

SW Project Design

Configuration Items

Any item that is designated for control and surveillance in order to track, trace, and record any changes

Examples

Software code / Library elements Baselines

Requirements Design documents

Product documents User documents

Test cases Test plans

PQA plans Estimates


Baselining configuration items
Baselining Configuration Items

  • Baselines are established at predetermined points in the life cycle of the work product.

  • Configuration of a work product evolves during development and is applied by developers as they perform their work.

  • Create baselines at predetermined points

Baseline Examples

Initiate

Functional baseline at end of Analysis

Analyze

System baseline at end of Design

Design

Example ProjectLife Cycle

Developmental baseline at end of Unit Test

Code

Developmental baseline

at end of System Test

Test

Deliver

Production baseline at final release

Maintain


Level 2 kpas4
Level 2 KPAs

Manages Project

Project Planning

Requirements Management

Project Tracking & Oversight

Verifies Process

Controls Products

Process Quality Assurance

Configuration Management


Process quality assurance pqa
Process Quality Assurance (PQA)

Why?

To provide management with insight into the software process

Verify

compliance

Plan for PQA

activities

How?

Report results

Escalate

non-compliance

issues


PQA

  • A planned and systematic pattern of all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that work products comply with software standards, procedures, and contractual requirements.

  • A set of activities designed to evaluate the process by which work products are developed and/or maintained.


PQA

Audits

  • Uses tools and techniques to audit work products

    Testing

  • Compare actual work products against agreed upon standards and procedures

Reviews

  • Uses tools and techniques to review activities

    Peer Reviews

    Inspections

  • Compare actual activities against processes


Summary of level 2 behaviors
Summary of Level 2 Behaviors

  • Use of processes and procedures is ensured by management and encouraged by peers

  • Benefits of following the process are understood and recognized

  • Appropriate training and resources are provided

  • Planned activities are willingly committed to

  • Open communications and sharing

  • Team approach versus individual heroics


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