School nutrition
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Improving School Nutrition in U.S. School Nutrition. By: Cam-Thu Do. Topic Outline for School Nutrition in the U.S. Adolescent Nutrition Needs & Benefits Nutrition in Schools Health Effects of Nutrition in Adolescents Tools for Successful Implementation of School Nutrition Intervention

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School nutrition

Improving School Nutrition in U.S.

School Nutrition

By: Cam-Thu Do


Topic outline for school nutrition in the u s

Topic Outline for School Nutrition in the U.S.

  • Adolescent Nutrition Needs & Benefits

  • Nutrition in Schools

  • Health Effects of Nutrition in Adolescents

  • Tools for Successful Implementation of School Nutrition Intervention

  • Barriers Associated with Nutritional Interventions


Adolescent nutritional needs and benefits

Adolescent Nutritional Needs and Benefits

Nutritional Needs

  • Five or more servings of fruits and vegetables

  • Sufficient intake of water per day

  • Proper servings of grains, dairy, healthy fats and animal products

Massy-stokes, M. (2002). Adolescent Nutrition: Needs and Recommendations for Practice. The Clearing House, 75, 286-291

United States Department of Agriculture (2010). Retrieved on April 22, 2010 From http://www.mypyramid.gov/guidelines/index.html


Adolescent nutritional needs and benefits1

Adolescent Nutritional Needs and Benefits

Nutritional Benefits

  • Improve learning abilities

  • Improve problem solving abilities

  • Improve self-esteem and motivation

  • Improve self image

Massy-stokes, M. (2002). Adolescent Nutrition: Needs and Recommendations for Practice. The Clearing House, 75, 286-291.


School nutrition1

Statistics

  • 23.9% of students eat five or more servings of fruits and vegetables

  • 18% drink 3 or more glasses of water per day

  • 42.7% of students were trying to lose weight

  • 32.7% of elementary school, 71.3% of middle school and 89.4% of high school had vending machines, or school store to purchase food and beverage

  • 4% of sates require schools to make fruits and vegetables available for purchase

  • The School Lunch Program nutritional guideline includes >=30% of the calories from fat and 1/3 RDA for Vitamin A, Vitamin C, iron, calcium and calories.

School Nutrition

Statistics on food consumption, school food options and school lunch program

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: School Health Policies and Programs Study (2006). Retrieved April 20, 2010 from www.cdc.gov/shpps

U.S. Department of Agriculture: National School Lunch Program (2010). Retrieved April 20, 2010 from http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/Lunch/AboutLunch/NSLPFactSheet.pdf

Massy-stokes, M. (2002). Adolescent Nutrition: Needs and Recommendations for Practice. The Clearing House, 75, 286-291


Health effects of poor school nutrition

Health Effects of Poor School Nutrition

Chronic Disease Risk

  • Increased risk for heart disease

  • Increased risk for type II diabetes

  • Increased risk for cancer development

Overweight and Obesity

  • Increased risk for eating disorders

  • Increased risk for depression

  • Increased risk for adulthood obesity

Massy-stokes, M. (2002). Adolescent Nutrition: Needs and Recommendations for Practice. The Clearing House, 75, 286-291

Wechsler, H., McKenna, M., Lee, S., Dietz, W. (2004). Overweight among Children and Adolescents. National Association of State Boards of Education, 7, 4-12.

Story, M., Neumark-Stzainer, D., Sherwood, N., Holt, K., Sofka, D., Trowbridge, F., Barlow S. (2002). Management of Child and Adolescent Obesity: Attitudes, Barriers, Skills and Training Needs Among Health Care Professionals. Pediatrics, 110, 210-214.


Risk factors associated with heart disease

  • Age

  • Gender

  • Heredity

  • Tobacco Smoking

  • High Blood Pressure

  • High Cholesterol

  • Physical inactivity

  • Obesity

  • Diabetes

Risk Factors Associated with Heart Disease

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Heart Disease Conditions (2010). Retrieved on April 20, 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/conditions.htm


Risk factors associated with adolescent obesity

Risk Factors Associated with Adolescent Obesity

  • Behavioral

    • Physical activity

    • Food Preference

    • Cultural norms

  • Environmental

    • Availability of fast food chain

    • Food choices offered in educational institutions

  • Psychosocial

    • Educational Attainment

    • Socioeconomic status

Merten, M., Wickrama, K., & Williams, A. (2008). Adolescent Obesity and Young Adult Psychosocial Outcomes: Gender and Racial Differences. J Youth Adolescence, 37, 1111-1122.

Davis, B., Carpenter, C. (2009). Proximity of Fast-Food Restaurants to School and Adolescent Obesity. American Journal of Public Health, 99, 505-510.


School nutrition interventions

School Nutrition Interventions

  • Health Education

  • Physical Education

  • Health Services

  • Nutrition Services

  • Counseling, Psychological and Social Services

  • Healthy School Environment

  • Health promotion for staff

  • Family and community involvement

Wechsler, H., McKenna, M., Lee, S., Dietz, W. (2004). Overweight among Children and Adolescents. National Association of State Boards of Education, 7, 4-12.


Barriers to implementing a school nutrition intervention

Barriers to Implementing a School Nutrition Intervention

Defining Healthy Eating

Strengthen Environment

  • Simplify and clarify healthy eating habits

  • Modify messages in advertisement and food choices to encourage healthy eating

  • Educating staff, students, family and community on how to improve nutrition

  • Educating students on media literacy

  • Utilizing peer leaders and peer educators to motivate students to eat healthy

  • Educate students on the benefits of an active lifestyle

Massy-stokes, M. (2002). Adolescent Nutrition: Needs and Recommendations for Practice. The Clearing House, 75, 286-291.

Wechsler, H., McKenna, M., Lee, S., Dietz, W. (2004). Overweight among Children and Adolescents. National Association of State Boards of Education, 7, 4-12.


Tools for successful implementation of school nutrition intervention

  • Coordinate School Health Program (CSHP)

  • School Health Council (SHC)

  • School Health Index: A self-Assessment and Planning Guide (SHI)

Tools for Successful Implementation of School Nutrition Intervention

Wechsler, H., McKenna, M., Lee, S., Dietz, W. (2004). Overweight among Children and Adolescents. National Association of State Boards of Education, 7, 4-12.


Overview of school nutrition

Overview of School Nutrition

  • Adolescent Nutrition Needs & Benefits

    • Adequate intake of the 5 food groups from the food pyramid

    • Improved school performance

  • Nutrition in Schools

    • Lack of nutrient rich food in educational institutions

  • Health Effects of Nutrition in Adolescents

    • Chronic diseases

    • Obesity and overweight

  • Tools for Successful Implementation of School Nutrition Intervention

    • Coordinate School Health Program (CSHP)

    • School Health Council (SHC)

    • School Health Index (SHI)

  • Barriers Associated with Nutritional Interventions

    • Defining healthy eating

    • Strengthen environment


  • Reference list

    Reference List

    [1] Massy-stokes, M. (2002). Adolescent Nutrition: Needs and Recommendations for Practice. The Clearing House, 75, 286-291

    [2] United States Department of Agriculture (2010). Retrieved on April 22, 2010 From http://www.mypyramid.gov/guidelines/index.html

    [3] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: School Health Policies and Programs Study (2006). Retrieved April 20, 2010 from www.cdc.gov/shpps

    [4] U.S. Department of Agriculture: National School Lunch Program (2010). Retrieved April 20, 2010 from http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/Lunch/AboutLunch/NSLPFactSheet.pdf

    [5] Wechsler, H., McKenna, M., Lee, S., Dietz, W. (2004). Overweight among Children and Adolescents. National Association of State Boards of Education, 7, 4-12.

    [6] Story, M., Neumark-Stzainer, D., Sherwood, N., Holt, K., Sofka, D., Trowbridge, F., Barlow S. (2002). Management of Child and Adolescent Obesity: Attitudes, Barriers, Skills and Training Needs Among Health Care Professionals. Pediatrics, 110, 210-214.

    [7] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Heart Disease Conditions (2010). Retrieved on April 20, 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/conditions.htm

    [8] Merten, M., Wickrama, K., & Williams, A. (2008). Adolescent Obesity and Young Adult Psychosocial Outcomes: Gender and Racial Differences. J Youth Adolescence, 37, 1111-1122.

    [9] Davis, B., Carpenter, C. (2009). Proximity of Fast-Food Restaurants to School and Adolescent Obesity. American Journal of Public Health, 99, 505-510.


    Additional resources

    [1] Gordon, A., Devaney, B., Burghardt, J. (1995). Dietary Effects of the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61, 221S-231S.

    [2] Pinhas-Hamiel, O., Standiford, D., Hamiel, D., Dolan, L., Cohen, R., Zeitler, S. (1999). The Type 2 Family: A Setting for Development and Treatment of Adolescent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 153, 1063-1067.

    [3] Rosenbloom, A., Joe, J., Young, R., Winter, W. (1999). Emerging Epidemic of Type 2 Diabetes in Youth. Diabetes Care, 22, 345-354.

    [4] Schwimmer, J., Burwinkle, T., Varni, J. (2003). Health-Related Quality of Life of Severely Obese Children and Adolescents. JAMA, 289, 1813-1819.

    [5] Story, M., Neumark-Stzainer, D., Sherwood, N., Holt, K., Sofka, D., Trowbridge, F., Barlow S. (2002). Management of Child and Adolescent Obesity: Attitudes, Barriers, Skills and Training Needs Among Health Care Professionals. Pediatrics, 110, 210-214.

    Additional Resources


    Questions

    Questions


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