The New Frontiers

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The New Frontiers

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1. The New Frontiers

2. The New South Must abandon it’s preoccupation with agriculture and embrace industrial & commercial development. Tremendous economic & social change Henry Grady – a major prophet of the New South The New South Creed - the South relied too much on slavery & ag. Must abandon these & follow the North’s example and industrialize.

3. 5 Factors of Economic Growth Textiles Tobacco Coal/Iron Ore Housing – Timber & Lumber Oil – in the SW Hydro-electric power - SE

4. Agriculture Hold over from the Colonial Economy Sharecropping Debit Peonage Migrant farmers/laborers Tenant farmers/laborers Increase in land-less farmers Introduction of new (old) crops, i.e. rice Crop-lien System – like debit peonage

5. The Redeemers ( Bourbons) Dominated southern Politics Save the South from “yankee domination” “learned nothing from the War” Wanted a Laissez faire government Focused on cutting back the size & scope of the government Education – private philanthropists Convict Leasing Established Boards of Health, Ed., Ag., set up Vo/tech. schools, colleges for blacks & whites Perpetuated the Myth of the Old South

6. The New South & The Redeemers The Old South Reconciled Promoted the growth of Industry Led the South into a new economic era without sacrificing the “Myth” C. Van Woodward – “it was not the Radicals nor the Confederates, but the Redeemers who laid the lasting foundations in matters of race, politics, economics and institutions for the Modern South.” Both Good & Bad

7. Disenfranchisement of the Blacks What is Disenfranchisement? Racists felt that the freed blacks were “like animals” especially the younger generation who were never slaves. The Populist Party split the white vote in the South, giving the blacks the majority. It even gave blacks leadership roles within the Party. The Redeemers revived the “Race issue”, stated that the blacks could vote, but their vote should be eliminated from Southern elections. Head-taxes, literacy tests, land ownership, residency requirements, etc. Also effected poor whites, thus the ways to get around it. Let the poor whites votes while keeping the blacks from voting. Grandfather Clause – Louisiana, GA, VA, NC, ALA, OKLA, by 1910.

8. SEGREGATION Jim Crow Laws & the Black Codes “Separate but Equal” very popular in the “New South” & elsewhere around the nation RR were the 1st to segregate – seating according to race Plessy vs. Ferguson – Homer Plessy, an Octaroon (1/8) black, refused to leave the “white car” and was arrested and convicted. The case was upheld by the US Supreme Court. Spread to all aspects of life

9. Early leaders of the Anti-Segregation movement Booker T. Washington -born in VA, slave mother & white father -attended the Hampton Institute -key player in the formation of the Tuskegee Inst. in Tuskegee, Ala. -stated that blacks should first establish an economic base for their advancement. -stayed out of the political light and was very vague on the segregation issue

10. Early leaders con’t. W.E.B. DuBois Major critic of Washington Mixed heritage also, black, white, European Attended Fisk Univ. in Nashville, TN., his 1st experience with racism & segregation Earned a PhD in History from Harvard Univ. Taught at Atlanta Univ. in 1897 Argued his theory of “ceaseless agitation” Founding member of the Niagara Movement and NAACP

11. THE NEW WEST Manifest Destiny – we are destined by GOD to occupy the lands between the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans The Great American Desert Mainly settled by immigrants & migrants Part of the “Out migration” from the South. The Exodusters – black migrants moving out west . Led by Benjamin “Pap” Singleton, an escaped slave that ran a boarding house in Detroit as a refuge for other runaways. Headed out to Kansas in 1878. Was unsuccessful, too expensive, too harsh of an environment, still faced racism, some were forced back into Debit peonage.

12. Buffalo Soldiers 1866 – Congress established 2 black cavalry units to be stationed out west. The 9th & 10th Cavalry became known as the Buffalo Soldiers. Built forts, mapped the west, protected the RR, wagon trains & settlers that hated them, put up telegraph lines, enforced the law, etc. Were paid $13 – 20/ month. Feared & respected by the Indian nations for their fierce fighting reputation.

13. INDIAN WARS 1851 – Treaty of Ft. Laramie – the Plains Indian tribes met with the US Government & Army and agreed upon definite boarders for the Indians, they had to leave the settlers alone & do not attack the wagon trains. This worked for a few years until the settlers did not abide by the treaty and began to settle in the Indian’s territory that was reached in the Treaty. Thus fighting resumed. 1864 – Sand Creek Massacre – Nov. 29, 1864 The Territorial Governor of Colorado persuaded the Cheyenne & Arapaho to peace talks. While they were en route, Col. John M. Chivington & his Colorado Militia ambushed the Indians. With orders to “Kill & scalp all, big & little…” The Indians were flying the US flag & a white flag, but 200 – 450 men, women & children were slaughtered, the militia lost none. Chivington himself brought back a collection of over 100 Indian scalps. “The foulest, most unjustifiable crime in the annals of America” Many in the east considered him a hero

14. Sioux War (1866-67) The Fetterman Massacre – The Bozeman Trail was very important to the mining camps and it needed to cut through Indian territory that was promised to the Sioux ( Lakota, Dakota, & Ogalala). Cpt. Fetterman said he could take 100 men through hostile Indian territory & make it safe. Red Cloud, an important Sioux leader, wiped out Fetterman’s unit, forcing the US to settle on a reserve in the Black Hills in the Montana Territory. This leads to the most famous battle of the Indian Wars

15. The Battle of Little Big Horn From 1874-1876 the Sioux & Cheyenne have lived in relative peace with the encroachment of the settlers. As part of their agreement with the US, they would not harass settlers if they would not enter Indian territory. The settlers began living in areas that belonged to the Indians. Miners found gold in the Black Hills area of the Montana territory. This brought more people. The Sioux & Cheyenne leaders plead their case to the US Army who were supposed to remove the miners & settlers, but never did.

16. June 25, 1876 – Gen. Alfred Terry, Lt. Col. George Custer, Maj. Marcus Reno all went to remove the Indian threat by launching a 3 pronged attack. Crazy Horse, Rain-in-the-Face, & Sitting Bull, all great Indian leaders & warriors, were waiting, well supplied, well armed, & outnumbered the Army. Custer, being very arrogant, thinks he can win it by himself and goes ahead of the rest, not staying in the support position as ordered. He & all of men of the 7th Cavalry were killed, as were most of the units at Little Big Horn.

18. 1879 – Chief Joseph of the Nez Perces tribe of Utah. His Indian name is translated as “Thunder coming up over the land from Water” very peaceful & tried to avoid war. Some of his younger warriors started a fight w/o his consent. This led to some of the greatest tactics ever devised in the west ( some of which are taught at West Point to this day). Chief Joseph finally tried to make it to Canada where the rest of his tribe was located. They were stopped less than 30 miles from the US/Canadian boarder.

19. The entire time he maintained control over his people. No looting, stealing, they had to pay for their supplies. No killing innocents, civilians, or scalping. He and his people kept their dignity to the very end. When captured, they did not resist on orders from Chief Joseph. He stated “ I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed, the old men are all dead, I want to have time to look for my children, and see how many of them I can find, Hear me, my chiefs! I am tired! My heart is sick & sad. From where the sun now stands, I shall fight no more forever.”

20. The Ghost Dance A few skirmishes after Chief Joseph was taken captive, but the wars really do not end until 1886 when the Chiricahua Apache Chief, Geronimo is captured in 1886. From 1886-1888 the Indians are forced to live in reservations-very poor conditions. 1888 – Wovoka (Jack Wilson) a Paiute Indian had a vision that would save the Indian nations & restore their lands and the coming of an Indian Messiah.

21. They would dance at every new moon to hasten the arrival of the Messiah. Built off of legends & myths from several different tribes. Appealed to many, especially the Sioux By 1890 the US Government banned the dance, causing increased tension in the reservations & camps. Dec. 29, 1890 the Massacre at Wounded Knee. US troops fired on a group of starving, half frozen Indians killing over 200.

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