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The French Revolution. I. The Old Order. French Society Divided First Estate – Catholic clergy (1% of the pop.) Second Estate – Nobles (2% of the pop.) Third Estate – bourgeoisie (97% of the pop.) Growing Unrest Third Estate called for change Nobles resented the king’s absolute power

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I the old order
I. The Old Order

  • French Society Divided

    • First Estate – Catholic clergy (1% of the pop.)

    • Second Estate – Nobles (2% of the pop.)

    • Third Estate – bourgeoisie (97% of the pop.)

  • Growing Unrest

    • Third Estate called for change

    • Nobles resented the king’s absolute power

    • Financial problems (higher prices/fees)

      • Banks would not lend more money to the crown

    • Crop failures raised prices even more

I the old order continued
I. The Old Order (continued)

  • Calling the Estates Together

    • Louis XVI was forced to call the Estates-General

      • Had not met since 1614

    • Nobles wanted to gain control of the government

    • Third Estate wanted a joint meeting

      • formed the National Assembly and promised to draft a Constitution (Tennis Court Oath)

  • A Call to Revolt

    • Third Estate wanted social/representative equality

    • The Fall of Bastille

    • Spreading violence against upper classes

Ii constitutional government
II. Constitutional Government

  • End of the Old Order

    • Nobles gave up feudal dues and agreed that all males could serve in govt., military, church office

    • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen

      • French Constitution (August of 1789)

      • All people are equal before the law

      • Freedom of speech, religion, and press

    • King Louis XVI forced to return to Paris

  • A New France

    • The Assembly sold off church land to pay debt

    • The Church was placed under govt. control

    • Constitution of 1791 – one-house assembly

      • Most moderates were happy with the Constitution results

      • Left, center, right wing ideas

      • Unrest begins

Iii the decline of monarchy
III. The Decline of Monarchy

  • Louis decided to flee to Austria, but was discovered and arrested

  • Louis was forced to accept the limited monarchy proposed by the Natl. Assembly

  • French Revolutionists declared war on Austria

  • The “September Massacres” – killing of nobles

Iv dawn of a new era
IV. Dawn of a New Era

  • The French Republic

    • The Natl. Convention met from 1792-1795

    • Political power placed in the legislature

  • Death of Louis XVI (Jan. 1793)

    • Was beheaded for conspiracy against liberty

    • No turning back, the republic would remain

    • Jacobins (sans-culottes) and Girondists

  • Spreading the Revolution

    • Leaders were determined to overthrow all royalty

    • Bring liberty, equality, and fraternity to all

    • Strong opposition from their enemies

    • Conscription was implemented (men 18-45)

Factions in the new government
Factions in the New Government

  • The Mountain (Jacobins) – most radical; support came from middle and lower classes

  • Girondins – moderates; support came from provinces and those who resented the Paris mob

  • The Plain – swing voters; originally supported the Girondins, but later changed to the Mountain

  • Radical Leaders

    • Jean-Paul Marat – advocated violence, leader of the sans culottes (considered the most radical)

    • Georges-Jacques Danton –came to be known as the “compromiser” (opposed Revolutions excesses)

    • Maximilien Robespierre – became more radical as the Revolution progressed (led the National Convention)

Quotes maximilien robespierre
Quotes– Maximilien Robespierre

  • Any law which violates the inalienable rights of man is essentially unjust and tyrannical; it is not a law at all.

  • Pity is treason.

  • The secret of freedom lies in educating people, whereas the secret of tyranny is in keeping them ignorant.

  • To punish the oppressors of humanity is clemency; to forgive them is cruelty.

  • The king must die so that the country can live.

Iv dawn of a new era cont
IV. Dawn of a New Era (cont.)

  • The Reign of Terror (July, 1793 – July, 1794)

    • Those suspected of treason were hunted down and punished (often times the victims were innocent)

    • 85% of the 40,000 were commoners

    • The Committee of Public Safety & Robespierre

    • Church was turned into a “temple of reason”

    • By mid 1794, many favored a restoration of monarchy

  • The Directory (1795 – 1799)

    • 1795: the Convention wrote a new constitution

    • Executive council of 5 directors was set in place

    • Used the army to put down uprisings by both the royalists and radicals

    • Ineptness and financial difficulty led to the end of the Directory

V napoleon takes over
V. Napoleon Takes Over

  • Had become a military hero while protecting the Directory (1795, age 26)

  • Was promoted to general, gained command of French forces in Prussia

  • Napoleon defeated the Austrians and forced them to relinquish most of northern Italy

  • Returned to Paris (from Egypt) in 1799 and joined revolutionary leaders in a coup d’état

  • Established a dictatorship; concentrated power

  • Replaced elected officials with men he appointed

  • Created the Bank of France; required all to pay taxes

    • Gradually brought inflation and high prices under control

    • Approved by the popular vote (plebiscite)

Vi napoleon builds an empire
VI. Napoleon Builds an Empire

  • Napoleonic Code: clear and consistent laws

    • Placed the state above the individual; allowed censorship

  • The Concordat of 1801: recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France

  • Treaty of Amiens (1802):

    • Between Great Britain and France

  • Battle of Trafalgar: an attempt to invade England

    • Admiral Lord Nelson defeated the French Navy

  • Economic Blockades:

    • Ordered all European nations to stop trade with Britain

    • Britain proclaimed all ships must first port in G.B.

    • French Economy worsened

Vii downfall of the empire
VII. Downfall of the Empire

  • Confederation of the Rhine – German States

  • Spaniards and Wellington (Wesley)

    • 1812: Spain overthrew French occupiers with the help of the English

  • Failed invasion of Russia – harsh winter

    • 400,000 of 600,000 French soldiers died

  • Napoleon forced into exile (Elba)

    • King Louis XVIII was restored to the throne

  • Hundred Days (March – June, 1815)

    • Napoleon’s return was met with both acceptance and opposition

    • Was defeated at Waterloo by Wellington

Peace in europe
Peace in Europe

  • Congress of Vienna

    • Compensation, Legitimacy, and balance of power

    • Redrawing maps (France relinquished most)

    • Restoring Monarchies (divine right was necessary)

    • Buffer States – neutral territories around French territories

  • Changing Forces

    • Reactionaries: opposed change (traditional)

    • Liberalism: accepted new ideas (change)

    • Alliances: representatives were to meet regularly

  • Concert of Europe

    • Two alliances met regularly

    • Helped avoid major European conflicts