Western europe in the middle ages
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Western Europe in the Middle Ages. Chapter Ten AP World History Ms. Tully. Overview of the Middle Ages. Fall of Rome  15 th Century 5 th – 10 th C – Early M.A. (Dark Ages) 10 th – 14 th C – High M.A. 14 th – 15 th C – Late M.A. Age of great faith – Christianity

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Western Europe in the Middle Ages

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Western Europe in the Middle Ages

Chapter Ten

AP World History

Ms. Tully


Overview of the Middle Ages

  • Fall of Rome  15thCentury

    • 5th – 10th C – Early M.A. (Dark Ages)

    • 10th – 14th C – High M.A.

    • 14th – 15th C – Late M.A.

  • Age of great faith – Christianity

  • Increasing participation in trade with Asia & Africa

  • The Crusades


The Dark Ages (500-900 CE)

  • Dominance of “barbarians” & frequent invasions

  • Overall decline of civilization

  • Shift of power away from Med.  Northern & Western EU

  • Emergence of regional kingdoms, but most society still very localized


Manorialism

  • Socio-political-economic organization on local level

  • Serfs lived on manors owned by a lord

  • Levels of production = low; technology = limited

  • Local politics with regional aristocrats is most common form of organization until Vikings invade at large in 9th C  Western Europeans turn to feudalism for greater protection, but manorialism in not abandoned


The Rise of the Catholic Church

  • Only example of solid organization

  • Copied government of Roman Empire to administer Christendom

  • Extensive missionary activity

  • Early kings interested in Christianity

  • Development of monasteries

  • Monastic orders based on saints – St. Clare & St. Francis of Assisi

  • 1073-1085: Gregorian Reforms with Gregory VII

  • Becomes most powerful and wealthy institution in the West


Charlemagne and the Carolingians

  • Frankish Carolingian dynasty grows in power (origins of modern FR & GR)

  • 732: Charles Martel defeats Muslims in Battle of Tours

  • Charlemagne (r. 768-814)  Est. empire in FR & GR ca. 800  Holy Roman Empire

  • Carolingian Renaissance

  • 843: Treaty of Verdun  empire breaks into three kingdoms


Holy Roman Empire (962-1806)

  • After Charlemagne HRE position/empire declines

  • Revived in 962: Otto I of Saxony crowned HRE (r. 936-973)

  • Merging of classical & Christian

  • Collection of principalities, city-states, small kingdoms


Feudal Monarchies

  • Military and political system

  • Growth of strong feudal monarchy in Europe took many centuries

  • Decline of Viking raids by 10th C

  • Result  regional monarchies with strong aristocracies

  • William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy


Limiting Government

  • Growth of monarchy cut into aristocratic power  attempts to limit monarchical power

  • 1215: Magna Carta

  • 1265: first English Parliament

  • Three Estates (Church, Nobles, Commoners)

  • Monarchies continued to increase in power


The Crusades

  • Eight Crusades

  • Three Primary Causes:

    • Power of church over people’s mindset

    • Bored soldiers

    • Great Schism

  • 1095: First Crusade called by Pope Urban II  reclaim Holy Land from Muslims

  • Reclaimed Jerusalem for ~100 years, lost to Saladin in 12th C

  • Demonstrated growing European ability & ambition

  • New contact with Islam & new possibilities

  • Demonstrated aggressive spirit of Western Europe


The High Middle Ages

  • Increased urbanization and declining manorialism

  • Increased trade

  • Increased economic activity & banking

  • Increased universities

  • Declining feudal political structures


Urbanization and Education

  • Warming trend after 750 CE population growth

  • Pop. Growth  economic expansion

  • Expansion of literacy

  • Emphasis on education  Growth of universities


Theology (Faith + Reason)

  • Greek philosophy assimilated into Catholic religious tradition

  • Dominant intellectual theme in postclassical West

  • Bernard of Clairvaux anti-theology, pro-mysticism

  • Thomas Aquinas


Religion in Art and Literature

  • Distinctive tradition in art & architecture

  • Painting: Wood panels, religious scenes, no perspective

  • Romanesque: Blocky, “Roman” – like

  • Gothic: Verticality, light, intricate

  • Literature: Latin vs. Vernacular


Agricultural Innovations

  • Moldboard

  • Crop rotation

  • Three-field system

  • More food  more people  more urban areas

  • Peasants starting to gain financial freedom


Growth of Trade and Banking

  • Money replaces barter system  emergence of new markets

  • Growth of banking led by merchants

  • Rebirth of Mediterranean trade

  • Hanseatic League

  • Merchants enjoyed relative autonomy

  • Growth of guilds


The Role of Women

  • Traditional roles: wife and childcare provider

  • Code of Chivalry: Reinforced ideas that women were weak/subordinate

  • Nunnery: Alternative to marriage

  • Mary vs. Eve


Crisis of the Late Middle Ages

  • Overpopulation

  • Hundred Years’ War

  • Great Schism – 3 Popes?

  • Black Death ca. 1350


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