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The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Thirty Years War (1618-1648). 1618-1648. Characteristics of the Thirty Years War. The Holy Roman Empire (Germany) was the battleground. At the beginning  it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants. At the end  it was Habsburg power that was threatened.

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The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)

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TheThirty Years

War (1618-1648)


1618-1648


Characteristics of the Thirty Years War

  • The Holy Roman Empire (Germany) was the battleground.

  • At the beginning  it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants.

  • At the end  it was Habsburg power that was threatened.

  • Resolved by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.


Thirty Years War

  • Bohemian Phase (1618 – 1625)

    • Ferdinand of Bohemia … HRE Ferdinand II

    • Defenestration of Prague

  • Danish Phase (1625 – 1629)

  • Swedish Phase (1630 – 1635)

  • French-Swedish Phase (1635 – 1648)


Loss of German Lives in 30 Years’ War


Treaty of Westphalia (1648)


1688-1700


Nobody Was Happy!

  • Many Protestants felt betrayed.

  • The pope denounced it.

  • Only merit  it ended the fighting in a war that became intolerable!

  • For the next few centuries, this war was blamed for everything that went wrong in Central Europe.


Elizabethan

England


Queen Elizabeth Tudor I

  • Born: September 7, 1533 to King Henry VIII and

    Anne Boleyn, his second wife.

  • Coronated: January 15, 1559 at Westminster Abbey

  • Died: March 24, 1603 at age 69


Elizabeth’s Refusal to Marry


Re-Establishing Protestantism


The Act of Supremacy

  • Gave Elizabeth ultimate control of the Church of England.

  • Title of monarch modified to "Supreme Governor of the Church in England". 

  • Also included an oath of loyalty to the Queen that the clergy were expected to take.

    • If they did not take it, then they would lose their office. 


The Northern Rebellion


Scotland

  • Many believed that Mary, Queen of Scots, a catholic, was the rightful Queen of England.

  • Since Mary too was a female sovereign Queen, Elizabeth was careful about how she recognized Mary’s power because she didn’t want to be in the same situation.

  • After Mary was forced out of Scotland and fled to England, Elizabeth locked her up.

  • Although Elizabeth did not want to have her cousin executed, she was forced to send Mary to execution after another plot to overthrow Elizabeth was uncovered.


War with Spain

  • Elizabeth had rebuked repeated offers of marriage from Philip II of Spain

  • This angered him

  • He also saw himself as the champion of Catholicism and sought to crush the Protestant Brits

  • WAR!!!


1588

  • British troops mass at Tilbury in anticipation of Spanish invasion

  • Elizabeth delivers a moving speech

  • Spanish Armada sails for England

  • Weather and Sir Francis Drake destroy Spanish Armada (1588)

  • England on the ascent .. Spain in decline


That’s a lot of wrecked ships!


Spanish Armada


Succession

  • On her deathbed, Elizabeth passed the crown onto James of Scotland.

    • He was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, Elizabeth’s cousin

  • Elizabeth felt comfortable in giving the crown to James because he had been raised by Protestant minister with whom Elizabeth had a correspondence.


How She Left the Country

  • England was one of the most powerful and prosperous countries in the world.

  • In spite of this, the country was saddled with tremendous debt

  • It had proved itself to be the strongest Naval force in the World.

  • "She is only a woman, only mistress of half an island," marvelled Pope Sixtus V, "and yet she makes herself feared by Spain, by France, by the Empire, by all"


EnglishConstitutionalMonarchy

Mayo


Two Models

Parliamentary Monarchy

Political Absolutism

France

England


Two Governmental Models

  • Military organization had a immense impact on political development

  • Military was much more expensive that it was previously

  • Monarchies tied to assemblies, parliaments, etc. had trouble raising money


Constitutionalism v. Absolutism


Monarchy’s attempt to raise revenue through new taxation undermined local nobility and land owners

Puritans (Protestant religious movement) opposed the Stuart monarchy

French nobility was dependent on Louis XIV goodwill and patronage … support benefited them

Louis XIV crush Protestant communities and gained support of Catholics (one religion)

England v. France


Parliament was long established and bargained with the king

Stuart monarchs were weak, acted on whims and offended numerous groups

Estates General had met in 1614 … not again until 1789 … only called by king

Strong personalities … Cardinal Richelieu, Mazarin, Louis XIV


The Stuart Monarchy


James I [r. 1603-1625]

Divine Right of Kings


Growing Crisis

  • James I sought to raise revenue without calling Parliament

  • James I also offended Puritans

    • King James Bible

    • Sports

      • Archery, Morris Dances, Whitsun-ales, leaping, vaulting, other such harmless recreation … NO bowling!


King James Bible, 1611


Other Missteps by James


Witch Hunts

  • Persecuted thousands for witchcraft

  • Personally liked to watch interrogations and tortures of accused witches


Male Affairs

  • "I, James, am neither a god nor an angel, but a man like any other. Therefore I act like a man and confess ... that I love the Earl of Buckingham more than anyone else,... (his long term lover whom he often called "Wife" in public); I wish to speak in my own behalf and not to have it thought to be a defect, For Jesus Christ did the same, and therefore I cannot be blamed. Christ had his John, and I have my George


Charles I [r. 1625-1649]


The Many Faces of Charles I


Charles I (1625 – 1649)

  • Charles I, now king, had to resort to other measures to pay for the war

  • New tariffs, discontinued taxes

  • Forced loans (required, but repaid) … prison for those who refused


  • 1624 (while James was still King) England was again at war with Spain

  • Parliament supported the war, but refused to adequately finance it


The Petition of Rights, 1628

“The Stuart Magna Carta”


Personal Rule

  • 1629 – Parliament acted to label taxation without the consent of parliament and anything leading to “popery” in religion were acts of treason

  • Charles dissolved Parliament

  • Charles made peace with France and Spain to conserve his resources

  • Fear of catholic sympathies

  • Charles’ wife was Catholic (French)

    • Henrietta Maria


Return of Parliament

  • War with Scotland (prayer book riots) (1637) (1638, vow, petition) (WAR)

  • To finance the war, the king called Parliament

  • Led by John Pym and Oliver Cromwell they refused to back the king or finance the war until the king addressed a list of grievances

  • Charles immediately dissolved Parliament

  • 1640, great Scottish victory over the English at Newburn … King recalled parliament …


The Long Parliament

  • Parliament now met for 20 years (hence the name … 1640 – 1660)

  • House of Commons impeached many nobles on the royal court

  • Voted that no more than three years between meetings … voted that they could not be dissolved without their own consent

  • Rebellion in Ireland (1641)

  • Parliament voted to take control of the army from Charles if they were to finance any more wars


Civil War

  • January 1642 – Charles invaded parliament with his army

  • He wanted to arrest John Pym and others but they had escaped

  • Shocked, Parliament voted to raise its own army …

    • Die was cast … Civil War

    • 1642 - 1646


Civil War (1621-1649)

Royalists(Cavaliers)

Parliamentarians(Roundheads)

  • House of Lords

  • N & W England

  • Aristocracy

  • Large landowners

  • Church officials

  • More rural, less prosperous

  • House of Commons

  • S & E England

  • Puritans

  • Merchants

  • Townspeople

  • More urban , more prosperous


Major Battles and Outcome

  • Oliver Cromwell took control of Roundheads

    • New Model Army

  • Victories over the king at Battle of Marston Moor (1644)

    • Naseby(Naisby) (1645)

    • Preston (1648)

      * Pride’s Purge


The Beheading of Charles I, 1649


Oliver Cromwell [1599-1658]The “Interregnum” Period [1649-1660]

  • The Commonwealth(1649-1653)

  • The Protectorate(1654-1660)


The Protectorate(1654-1660)

  • From 1654-1660 Oliver Cromwell ruled England as a military dictator

  • Puritan dogma and social values were enforced as laws

  • Many were executed for the most minor of violations

Lord Protector


Irish Conquest

  • Cromwell personally led invasion and conquest of Ireland … very brutal

  • The public practice of Catholicism was banned and Catholic priests were murdered when captured.

  • All Catholic-owned land was confiscated in the Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652 and given to Scottish and English settlers, the Parliament's financial creditors and Parliamentary soldiers.

  • Under the Commonwealth, Catholic landownership dropped from 60% of the total to just 8%


Scotland

  • 1659, Cromwell invaded Scotland because Scotland had declared Charles II king

  • Cromwell's men sacked the town of Dundee, killing up to 2,000 of its population of 12,000 and destroying the 60 ships in the city's harbor.

  • During the Commonwealth, Scotland was ruled from England, and was kept under military occupation, with a line of fortifications sealing off the Highlands, which had provided manpower for Royalist armies in Scotland, from the rest of the country.


Cancel Christmas!

  • Restricted religious practices that were not strictly Puritan (Calvinist)

  • Closed theatres

  • Closed pubs

  • Closed Brothels

  • Allowed Jews to worship openly and paved way for general acceptance … diplomatic conversion … precursor to “last days”


King Charles II [r. 1660-1685]


King Charles II [r. 1660-1685]

  • 1673  Test Act

    • Parliament excluded all but Anglicans from civilian and military positions.[to the Anglican gentry, the Puritans were considered “radicals” and the Catholics were seen as “traitors!”]


King James II [r. 1685-1688]

  • Was a bigoted convert to Catholicism without any of Charles II’s shrewdness or ability to compromise.

  • Alienated even the Tories.

  • Provoked the revolution that Charles II had succeeded in avoiding!


The “Glorious” Revolution: 1688

  • Whig & Tory leaders offered the throne jointly to James II’s daughter Mary [raised a Protestant] & her husband, William of Orange.

    • He was a vigorous enemy of Louis XIV.

    • He was seen as a champion of the Protestant cause.


English Bill of Rights [1689]

  • It settled all of the major issues between King & Parliament.

  • It served as a model for the U. S. Bill of Rights.

  • It also formed a base for the steady expansion of civil liberties in the 18c and early 19c in England.


English Bill of Rights [1689]

  • Main provisions:

    • The King could not suspend the operation of laws.

    • The King could not interfere with the ordinary course of justice.

    • No taxes levied or standard army maintained in peacetime without Parliament’s consent.

    • Freedom of speech in Parliament.

    • Sessions of Parliament would be held frequently.

    • Subjects had the right of bail, petition, and freedom from excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment.

    • The monarch must be a Protestant.

    • Freedom from arbitrary arrest.

    • Censorship of the press was dropped.

    • Religious toleration.


Louis XIV

Absolutism?


French Government

  • Challenges to authority?

    • Strong, well-armed nobles

    • Discontented Protestants

  • Chief Ministers

    • Cardinal Richelieu (1585 – 1642) Louis XIII (r.1610 – 1643)

    • Cardinal Mazarin (1602 – 1661) Louis XIV briefly

      • Violated previously established freedoms

      • Built royal absolutism


Fronde

  • Rebellions by French nobles

  • 1649-1652

  • Unsuccessful

  • Fronde (sling)


Louis XIV

  • Personal control of government at 23

  • Growth of monarchy and Louis’ authority benefitted nobles …. Ensured their support

  • Parlements – regional judicial bodies, NOT like Britain

  • Parlement of Paris was different, more power, less supportive of absolutism


Divine Right

  • “L’etat, c’est moi” (I am the state)

  • Only God could judge the king

  • Though divine right, rule was NOT oppressive


Wars

  • War of the Spanish Succession

    • 1700 Charles II, last Hapsburg King of Spain, died

    • Charles II had left throne to Louis’ grandson, Philip of Anjou … Philip V of Spain

    • Spain and assets to France?

    • War from 1701 – 1714

    • Louis had inadequate resources

    • Treaty of Utrecht 1713


Religious Persecution

  • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685)

    • Part of larger persecution of Protestants before and after

    • Also persecuted Jansenists

      • Catholics … St. Augustine

      • Free will?


Versailles:

Home of the

"Sun King"

Mayo


Young Louis XIV


L’ouis XIV


L’ etat c’est moi!

ByHyacintheRigaud


L’ ouis XIV as Apollo


L’ ouis XIV as Apollo

by Jean Nocret, 1670


The Sun Symbol


Louis XIV Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1665


Versailles Statistics

  • 2,000 acres of grounds

  • 12 miles of roads

  • 27 miles of trellises

  • 200,000 trees

  • 210,000 flowers planted every year

  • 80 miles of rows of trees

  • 55 acres surface area of the Grand Canal

  • 12 miles of enclosing walls

  • 50 fountains and 620 fountain nozzles

  • 21 miles of water conduits

  • 3,600 cubic meters per hour: water consumed

  • 26 acres of roof

  • 51,210 square meters of floors

  • 2,153 windows

  • 700 rooms

  • 67 staircases

  • 6,000 paintings

  • 1,500 drawings and 15,000 engravings

  • 2,100 sculptures

  • 5,000 items of furniture and objects d'art

  • 150 varieties of apple and peach trees in the Vegetable Garden


Versailles

  • Palace Comparison

  • U.S. Mansions


Versailles Today


Palais de Versailles


Palais de Versailles


Versailles Palace,Park Side


Garden View of Versailles


Chateau de Versailles


Chateau de Versailles


Versailles’ Northern Gardens


Gardens at Versailles


Chateau de Versailles Gardens


The Orangery


Grounds at Versailles


And More Fountains!


And Even More Fountains!!!


Temple of Love


Hall ofMirrors


The King’s Bed

The Queen’s Bed


Louis XIV’s Chapel


Louis XIV’s Chapel Altarpiece


Organ in Louis XIV’s Chapel


Louis XIV’s Opera Stage


The Gallery of Battles


Louis XV [r. 1715 – 1774]


Paths to Power

Central and Eastern Europe


Robert Walpole

  • Robert Walpole

    • Managed economic recovery and stability for George I

    • Became considered first Prime Minister of GB

    • Controlled government patronage and managed bureaucracy

    • “Let sleeping dogs lie”


Let sleeping dogs lie

Robert Walpole


Sweden

  • Sweden had played a major role in the Thirty Years’ War

  • Sweden consolidated control of the Baltic Sea

  • Sweden had one of the better armies in Europe

  • Economic concerns … weak


Charles XII

  • Ruled 1697 – 1718

  • Stubborn and insane

  • Opposed Russian expansion in the Baltic region

  • Great Northern War (1700-1721)

  • Charles led a vigorous and brilliant campaign


Great Northern War

  • Sweden defeated Russia at Narva (1700)

  • 1708 invasion of Russia … bogged down in harsh Russian winter (a recurring theme)

  • Charles died in 1718 … war exhausted Swedish resources and Army


Outcome of the Great Northern War

  • Russia gained foothold in Baltic

  • Prussia gained Pomerania

  • Swedish nobles quarreled over power and Sweden faded into the European background


Russia & Sweden After the Great Northern War


POLAND

  • Polish armies had rescued Vienna from a Turkish siege in 1683

  • Following this glorious effort, Poland faded in influence

  • Internal squabbling amongst nobles and a fierce desire for autonomy prevented centralized authority


Diet

  • No king, but the nobles did have a legislature (diet)

  • Nobles ONLY

  • Liberum veto … a single member could demand the body disband … “exploding the diet”

  • Requirement of unanimity doomed Poland

  • Poland disappeared by the end of 1700s


Hapsburg Austria

  • Spanish and Austrian branches of the Hapsburg family became officially split after the Treaty of Westphalia

  • Austrian Hapsburgs retained title of Holy Roman Emperor

  • Hapsburgs used military to extend power into Netherlands and northern Italy


Pragmatic Sanction

  • Hapsburg line eventually ran out of heirs after Charles VI (1711-1740)

  • Pragmatic Sanction Provided the legal basis for a single line of inheritance through Charles VI’s daughter Maria Theresa

  • This worked for political stability, but foreign aggression was a threat


Prussia and the Hohenzollerns

  • Hohenzollerns took territory in Brandenburg and expanded it into the large entity called Prussia (among German states of HRE)

  • Second only to the Hapsburgs in HRE


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