Chapter 10 nutrients physical activity and the body s responses
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Chapter 10 Nutrients, Physical Activity, and the Body’s Responses. Nutrition : Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney. Introduction. Physical activity and nutrition Needs Energy-yielding nutrients Vitamins and minerals Results Regulation of energy-yielding nutrients

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Chapter 10 Nutrients, Physical Activity, and the Body’s Responses

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Chapter 10Nutrients, Physical Activity, and the Body’s Responses

Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney


Introduction

  • Physical activity and nutrition

    • Needs

      • Energy-yielding nutrients

      • Vitamins and minerals

    • Results

      • Regulation of energy-yielding nutrients

      • Body composition

      • Daily calorie allowance


Fitness

  • Depends on physical activity or exercise

    • Movement, muscle contraction, & energy expenditure

  • Benefits

    • Chronic disease

    • Longevity

    • Disease resistance

    • Numerous other benefits


Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans


Intensity of Physical Activity


The Essentials of Fitness

  • Components of fitness

    • Adaptations

  • Athletes

    • Muscle power

    • Agility

    • Reaction times

    • Fatigue


How Do Muscles Gain in Size and Strength?

  • Activity choices

    • Overload

  • Balance of activity and rest

    • Work different muscle groups

    • Muscles need rest

      • Replenish and adapt

  • Specific training

  • Hormones and muscle growth


What Are the Benefits of Resistance Training?

  • Progressive weight training

    • Prevent and manage chronic disease

  • Muscle strength & size, power, or endurance

    • Resistance and repetitions

    • Appearance

  • Mobility and bone loss

    • Slows loss of physical mobility

    • Maximize and maintain bone mass


How Does Cardiorespiratory Training Benefit the Heart?

  • Enhances capacity

    • Heart, lungs, and blood

  • Enhances efficiency

    • Delivery of oxygen

      • VO2 max

    • Removal of wastes

  • Blood lipid profile

    • Heart disease risk


The Active Body’s Use of Fuels

  • Fuels

  • Mixtures

    • Vary

  • Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)

    • High intensity activities

    • Cardiac output

  • Fuel usage


Delivery of Oxygen by the Heart and Lungs to the Muscles


Glucose Use and Storage

  • Muscle glucose

    • Retains glycogen for own use

  • Liver glucose

  • Glycogen and endurance

    • High-carbohydrate diets


The Effect of Diet on Physical Endurance


Activity Intensity, Glucose Use, and Glycogen Stores

  • Energy stored as glycogen

  • Anaerobic use of glucose

    • Quick energy

    • Muscle glycogen reserves

  • Aerobic use of glucose

    • Energy from glucose and fatty acids

  • Lactate

    • Anaerobic activity

    • Muscle size and strength


Glucose and Fatty Acids in Their Energy-Releasing Pathways in Muscle Cells


Activity Duration, Glucose Use, and Glycogen Stores

  • Glucose use

    • Duration of activity

    • Intensity of activity

  • Blood glucose and activity

    • Dietary strategies

      • High carbohydrate diet daily

      • Consume glucose during activity

      • Consume carbohydrate shortly after exercise


Fat and Physical Activity

  • Body fat as fuel for activity

    • Sources of fat

    • Importance of strength training

  • Fat in the athlete’s diet

    • Performance

    • Omega-3 fatty acids

  • Intensity and duration

  • Degree of training


Protein for Building Muscles and for Fuel

  • Muscle protein synthesis

    • Up to two days after activity

    • Intensity and pattern of muscle contraction

    • Muscle cells only build proteins as needed

  • Dietary protein

    • Supplements

    • High-quality proteins

  • Fuel for physical activity

    • Factors that regulate protein use


Nutrients of Concern

  • Vitamin E

    • Physical activity creates more free radicals

    • Benefits of vitamin E supplements

      • Studies are conflicting

    • Interference with absorption

  • Iron

    • Deficiency impairs performance

    • Groups at risk for deficiency

    • Sports anemia


Water Losses During Physical Activity

  • Water losses

    • Breathing and sweating

  • Dehydration

  • Sweat and temperature regulation

  • Heat stroke

    • Potentially fatal

    • Reduce risk

  • Hypothermia

    • Symptoms


Fluid and Electrolyte Needs During Physical Activity

  • Hydrate and rehydrate

  • Thirst signal

    • Hourly sweat rate

  • Water

    • Endurance athletes

  • Electrolyte losses and replacement

    • Minerals

    • Sports drinks vs. regular diet


Sodium Depletion and Water Intoxication

  • Replenishing electrolytes

    • Crucial time

    • Hyponatremia

      • Differs from dehydration

    • Heat cramps

      • Sodium


What Do Sports Drinks Have to Offer?

  • Fluid

  • Glucose

  • Sodium and other electrolytes

  • Psychological edge


Ergogenic Aids

  • Caffeine

    • Endurance vs. high-intensity activities

    • Adverse effects

    • Diuretic

  • Carnitine

    • Nonessential nutrient

  • Chromium picolinate

    • Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    • Safety concerns


Ergogenic Aids

  • Creatine

    • Hypothesized benefits

    • Confirmed effect

      • Weight gain

  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)

    • Not worth their price

  • Sodium bicarbonate

    • Unpleasant side effects


Ergogenic Aids

  • Amino acid supplements

    • Maximum gains

      • Essential amino acids in system prior to physical work

    • Best source

      • Food

      • Reasons against supplements


Ergogenic Aids

  • Whey protein and other protein supplements

    • By product of cheese making

    • Timing of protein intake

  • Complete meal replacers

    • Fall short of ‘complete’ nutrition

    • Risk of dental caries

    • Nutritional uses

      • Pregame meal

      • Between-meal snack


Hormone Preparations

  • Anabolic steroid hormones

    • Illegal and dangerous

  • Steroid alternative supplements

    • Herbal or insect sterols

  • Prohormones

    • Androstenedione

    • DHEA

  • Drugs posing as supplements


Physical Risks of Taking Steroid Hormone Drugs


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