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Chapter 10 Nutrients, Physical Activity, and the Body s Responses

Introduction. Physical activity and nutritionNeeds Energy-yielding nutrientsVitamins and mineralsResultsRegulation of energy-yielding nutrientsBody compositionDaily calorie allowance. Fitness. Depends on physical activity or exerciseMovement, muscle contraction,

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Chapter 10 Nutrients, Physical Activity, and the Body s Responses

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Chapter 10 nutrients physical activity and the body s responses

Chapter 10Nutrients, Physical Activity, and the Body’s Responses

Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney



  • Physical activity and nutrition

    • Needs

      • Energy-yielding nutrients

      • Vitamins and minerals

    • Results

      • Regulation of energy-yielding nutrients

      • Body composition

      • Daily calorie allowance



  • Depends on physical activity or exercise

    • Movement, muscle contraction, & energy expenditure

  • Benefits

    • Chronic disease

    • Longevity

    • Disease resistance

    • Numerous other benefits

Physical activity guidelines for americans

Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans

Intensity of physical activity

Intensity of Physical Activity

The essentials of fitness

The Essentials of Fitness

  • Components of fitness

    • Adaptations

  • Athletes

    • Muscle power

    • Agility

    • Reaction times

    • Fatigue

How do muscles gain in size and strength

How Do Muscles Gain in Size and Strength?

  • Activity choices

    • Overload

  • Balance of activity and rest

    • Work different muscle groups

    • Muscles need rest

      • Replenish and adapt

  • Specific training

  • Hormones and muscle growth

What are the benefits of resistance training

What Are the Benefits of Resistance Training?

  • Progressive weight training

    • Prevent and manage chronic disease

  • Muscle strength & size, power, or endurance

    • Resistance and repetitions

    • Appearance

  • Mobility and bone loss

    • Slows loss of physical mobility

    • Maximize and maintain bone mass

How does cardiorespiratory training benefit the heart

How Does Cardiorespiratory Training Benefit the Heart?

  • Enhances capacity

    • Heart, lungs, and blood

  • Enhances efficiency

    • Delivery of oxygen

      • VO2 max

    • Removal of wastes

  • Blood lipid profile

    • Heart disease risk

The active body s use of fuels

The Active Body’s Use of Fuels

  • Fuels

  • Mixtures

    • Vary

  • Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)

    • High intensity activities

    • Cardiac output

  • Fuel usage

Delivery of oxygen by the heart and lungs to the muscles

Delivery of Oxygen by the Heart and Lungs to the Muscles

Glucose use and storage

Glucose Use and Storage

  • Muscle glucose

    • Retains glycogen for own use

  • Liver glucose

  • Glycogen and endurance

    • High-carbohydrate diets

The effect of diet on physical endurance

The Effect of Diet on Physical Endurance

Activity intensity glucose use and glycogen stores

Activity Intensity, Glucose Use, and Glycogen Stores

  • Energy stored as glycogen

  • Anaerobic use of glucose

    • Quick energy

    • Muscle glycogen reserves

  • Aerobic use of glucose

    • Energy from glucose and fatty acids

  • Lactate

    • Anaerobic activity

    • Muscle size and strength

Glucose and fatty acids in their energy releasing pathways in muscle cells

Glucose and Fatty Acids in Their Energy-Releasing Pathways in Muscle Cells

Activity duration glucose use and glycogen stores

Activity Duration, Glucose Use, and Glycogen Stores

  • Glucose use

    • Duration of activity

    • Intensity of activity

  • Blood glucose and activity

    • Dietary strategies

      • High carbohydrate diet daily

      • Consume glucose during activity

      • Consume carbohydrate shortly after exercise

Fat and physical activity

Fat and Physical Activity

  • Body fat as fuel for activity

    • Sources of fat

    • Importance of strength training

  • Fat in the athlete’s diet

    • Performance

    • Omega-3 fatty acids

  • Intensity and duration

  • Degree of training

Protein for building muscles and for fuel

Protein for Building Muscles and for Fuel

  • Muscle protein synthesis

    • Up to two days after activity

    • Intensity and pattern of muscle contraction

    • Muscle cells only build proteins as needed

  • Dietary protein

    • Supplements

    • High-quality proteins

  • Fuel for physical activity

    • Factors that regulate protein use

Nutrients of concern

Nutrients of Concern

  • Vitamin E

    • Physical activity creates more free radicals

    • Benefits of vitamin E supplements

      • Studies are conflicting

    • Interference with absorption

  • Iron

    • Deficiency impairs performance

    • Groups at risk for deficiency

    • Sports anemia

Water losses during physical activity

Water Losses During Physical Activity

  • Water losses

    • Breathing and sweating

  • Dehydration

  • Sweat and temperature regulation

  • Heat stroke

    • Potentially fatal

    • Reduce risk

  • Hypothermia

    • Symptoms

Fluid and electrolyte needs during physical activity

Fluid and Electrolyte Needs During Physical Activity

  • Hydrate and rehydrate

  • Thirst signal

    • Hourly sweat rate

  • Water

    • Endurance athletes

  • Electrolyte losses and replacement

    • Minerals

    • Sports drinks vs. regular diet

Sodium depletion and water intoxication

Sodium Depletion and Water Intoxication

  • Replenishing electrolytes

    • Crucial time

    • Hyponatremia

      • Differs from dehydration

    • Heat cramps

      • Sodium

What do sports drinks have to offer

What Do Sports Drinks Have to Offer?

  • Fluid

  • Glucose

  • Sodium and other electrolytes

  • Psychological edge

Ergogenic aids

Ergogenic Aids

  • Caffeine

    • Endurance vs. high-intensity activities

    • Adverse effects

    • Diuretic

  • Carnitine

    • Nonessential nutrient

  • Chromium picolinate

    • Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    • Safety concerns

Ergogenic aids1

Ergogenic Aids

  • Creatine

    • Hypothesized benefits

    • Confirmed effect

      • Weight gain

  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)

    • Not worth their price

  • Sodium bicarbonate

    • Unpleasant side effects

Ergogenic aids2

Ergogenic Aids

  • Amino acid supplements

    • Maximum gains

      • Essential amino acids in system prior to physical work

    • Best source

      • Food

      • Reasons against supplements

Ergogenic aids3

Ergogenic Aids

  • Whey protein and other protein supplements

    • By product of cheese making

    • Timing of protein intake

  • Complete meal replacers

    • Fall short of ‘complete’ nutrition

    • Risk of dental caries

    • Nutritional uses

      • Pregame meal

      • Between-meal snack

Hormone preparations

Hormone Preparations

  • Anabolic steroid hormones

    • Illegal and dangerous

  • Steroid alternative supplements

    • Herbal or insect sterols

  • Prohormones

    • Androstenedione

    • DHEA

  • Drugs posing as supplements

Physical risks of taking steroid hormone drugs

Physical Risks of Taking Steroid Hormone Drugs