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15. Secession and the Civil War 1860–1865. Secession and the Civil War 1860–1865. The Storm Gathers Adjusting to Total War Fight to the Finish Effects of the War. The Emergence of Lincoln. Lincoln’s election plunged nation into greatest conflict People were skeptical of his abilities

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Secession and the Civil War 1860–1865

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Secession and the civil war 1860 1865


Secession and the Civil War1860–1865

Secession and the civil war 1860 18651

Secession and the Civil War1860–1865

  • The Storm Gathers

  • Adjusting to Total War

  • Fight to the Finish

  • Effects of the War

The emergence of lincoln

The Emergence of Lincoln

  • Lincoln’s election plunged nation into greatest conflict

  • People were skeptical of his abilities

  • Proved to be an effective war leader

  • Identified wholeheartedly with Northern cause

  • Civil War put on trial the very principle of democracy

The storm gathers

The Storm Gathers

  • Secession does not necessarily mean war

  • One last attempt to reconcile North and South

  • Federal response to secession debated

The deep south secedes

The Deep South Secedes

  • December 20, 1860: South Carolina secedes

  • February, 1861: Confederate States of America formed

    • Included South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas

The deep south secedes cont d

The Deep South Secedes (cont’d)

  • Government headed by moderates

  • Confederate constitution resembles U.S.

  • Aim to restore pre-Republican Party Union

  • Southerners hope to attract Northern states into Confederacy

The failure of compromise

The Failure of Compromise

  • Crittenden Plan: Extend the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific

  • Lincoln rejects compromise

    • Does not think it will end secession

    • Misperceived depth of support for secession and thought compromise would demoralize union sympathizers

    • Viewed as repudiation of majority rule

And the war came

And the War Came

  • North seeks action to preserve Union

  • April 13, 1861: Fort Sumter, S.C., falls

  • April, 15: Lincoln calls out Northern state militias to suppress Southern insurrection

  • April–May: Upper South secedes

  • Border states: Slave states remain in Union

  • War defined as effort to preserve Union

Map 15 1 secession the fall of fort sumter was a watershed for the secessionist movement

Map 15.1 SecessionThe fall of Fort Sumter was a watershed for the secessionist movement.

Adjusting to total war

Adjusting to Total War

  • North must win by destroying will to resist

  • Total War: a test of societies, economies, political systems as well as armies

Mobilizing the home fronts

Mobilizing the Home Fronts

  • 1862: North and South begin conscription

  • Northern mobilization

    • Finance war through taxes, bonds, paper money

    • Private industry supplies Union armies well

Mobilizing the home fronts cont d

Mobilizing the Home Fronts (cont’d)

  • Confederate mobilization

    • Government arsenals supply Confederate armies

    • Efforts to finance lead to runaway inflation

    • Transportation system inadequate

Figure 15 1 resources of the union and the confederacy 1861

Figure 15.1 Resources of the Union and the Confederacy, 1861

Political leadership northern success and southern failure

Political Leadership: Northern Success and Southern Failure

  • Lincoln expands wartime powers

    • Declares martial law

    • Imprisons 10,000 "subversives" without trial

    • Briefly closed down a few newspapers

Political leadership northern success and southern failure cont d

Political Leadership: Northern Success and Southern Failure (cont’d)

  • Jefferson Davis

    • Concerned mainly with military duties

    • Neglects civilian morale, economy

    • Lacks influence with state governments

Early campaigns and battles

Early Campaigns and Battles

  • Northern achievements by 1862

    • Total naval supremacy

    • Confederate troops cleared from West Virginia, Kentucky, much of Tennessee

    • New Orleans captured

Early campaigns and battles cont d

Early Campaigns and Battles (cont’d)

  • Confederate achievements by 1862

    • Stall campaign for the Mississippi at Shiloh

    • Defend Richmond from capture

Fight to the finish

Fight to the Finish

  • North adopts radical measures to win

  • 1863: War turns against South

  • Southern resistance continues

The coming of emancipation

The Coming of Emancipation

  • September 22, 1862: Antietam prompts preliminary Emancipation Proclamation

    • Surrender in 100 days or lose slaves

  • January 1, 1863: Proclamation put into effect for areas still in rebellion

  • African Americans flee to Union lines

  • Confederacy loses thousands of laborers

African americans and the war

African Americans and the War

  • 200,000 African American Union troops

  • Many others labor in Northern war effort

  • Lincoln pushes further for black rights

    • Organizes governments in conquered Southern states that abolish slavery

    • Maryland, Missouri abolish slavery

    • January 31, 1865: 13th Amendment passed

Secession and the civil war 1860 1865

Black Soldiers This 1890 lithograph by Kurz and Allison commemorates the 54th Massachusetts Colored Regiment charging Fort Wagner, South Carolina, in July 1863. The 54th was the first African-American unit recruited during the war. Charles and Lewis Douglass, sons of Frederick Douglass, served with this regiment.

The tide turns

The Tide Turns

  • May, 1863: War-weariness

    • New York riots against conscription

    • Anti-war activist like Congressman Clement Vallandigham arrested

    • Grant bogged down at Vicksburg

    • Union defeated at Chancellorsville

    • Democrats “Copperheads” attack Lincoln

The tide turns cont d

The Tide Turns (cont’d)

  • July, 1863

    • Confederate invasion of North fails at Battle of Gettysburg

    • Vicksburg falls, North holds the Mississippi

Secession and the civil war 1860 1865

An 1863 draft call in New York provoked violence against African Americans, viewed by the rioters as the cause of an unnecessary war, and rage against the rich men who had been able to buy exemptions from the draft. This 1863 illustration from Harper’s Weekly depicts a mob lynching a black man on Clarkson Street in New York City.

Last stages of the conflict

Last Stages of the Conflict

  • March 9, 1864: Grant supreme commander of Union armies

  • Union invades the South on all fronts

    • William Sherman marches through Georgia

    • Grant lays siege to Richmond, Petersburg

  • September, 2: Sherman takes Atlanta

  • November, 8: Lincoln re-elected

Table 15 1 the election of 1864

TABLE 15.1 The Election of 1864

Last stages of the conflict cont d

Last Stages of the Conflict (cont’d)

  • Sherman’s March to the sea through Georgia

  • Scorched earth policy

  • April 2, 1865: Grant takes Richmond

  • April 9, 1865: Lee surrenders

  • April 14, 1865: Lincoln assassinated

  • April 18, 1865: Last major Confederate force under Joseph Johnston surrender

Secession and the civil war 1860 1865

Map 15.2 Civil War, 1861–1865 In the western theater of war, Grant’s victories at Port Gibson, Jackson, and Champion’s Hill cleared the way for his siege of Vicksburg. In the east, after the hard-won Union victory at Gettysburg, the South never again invaded the North. In 1864 and 1865, Union armies gradually closed in on Lee’s Confederate forces in Virginia. Leaving Atlanta in flames, Sherman marched to the Georgia coast, took Savannah, then moved his troops north through the Carolinas. Grant’s army, though suffering enormous losses, moved on toward Richmond, marching into the Confederate capital on April 3, 1865, and forcing surrender.

Figure 15 2 casualties of war

Figure 15.2 Casualties of war

Effects of the war

Effects of the War

  • 618,000 troops dead; bereft women seek non-domestic roles

  • Four million African Americans free, not equal

  • Industrial workers face wartime inflation

  • Federal government predominant over states, takes activist role in economy

    • Higher tariffs, free land, national banking system

Conclusion an organizational revolution

Conclusion:An Organizational Revolution

  • Modern bureaucratic state emerges

  • Individualism gives way to organized, cooperative activity

  • Catalyst for transformation of American society in the late 19th century



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