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Bell Ringer. “It is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong.” Explain this quote in your own words. The American Revolution. Seceding from the Empire. Philosophical Stirrings. The Ideas that Shaped the Revolution. The Enlightenment.

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Bell ringer

Bell Ringer

“It is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong.”

Explain this quote in your own words.


The american revolution

The American Revolution

Seceding from the Empire


Philosophical stirrings

Philosophical Stirrings

The Ideas that Shaped the Revolution


The enlightenment

The Enlightenment

The Enlightenment was a cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe and the United States, whose purpose was to reform society and advance knowledge through reason and logic.


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Locke

Humans are all born free and equal, with three natural rights: life, liberty, and property.


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Voltaire

“I may not agree with a thing you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”

Man’s right to freedom of religion and speech must be protected, oui?


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Montesquieu

Power should not be held by one man alone, but separated amongst several branches. Power should be a check to power.


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Rousseau

Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. The sovereignty of the people is essential to the creation of a just government.


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Beccaria

Just because you have been accused of a crime does not mean you shouldn’t be treated humanely. Torture should never be used. You should have a speedy trial and your punishment should fit the crime.


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Wollstonecraft

If all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves?

Welcome to Stepford!


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Smith

If humans freely follow their own self interest, government will be guided by an invisible hand. This is laissez faire.


The road to revolution

The Road to Revolution


Effects of the war

Effects of the War

Britain

United them under a common enemy for the first time

It created bitter feelings towards the pompous British

Were no longer able to ignore British tax laws

Colonies

  • Increased her colonial empire

  • It greatly enlarged England’s debt

  • Britain’s contempt for the ungrateful colonials created bitter feelings


Proclamation of 1763

Proclamation of 1763

  • Prohibited colonists from moving west of the Appalachians; only intended to be temporary

  • British aim: Protect colonists from Indian attacks

  • Colonists’ view: infuriated; saw the law as being permanent.

  • Colonists generally ignored the Proclamation


War and money

War and Money

  • Mercantilism: Colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country

    • Act as both suppliers and consumers for the empire.

  • Navigation Acts: Restricted commerce to and from the colonies to English or American vessels

  • Molasses Act: imposed heavy duties on all molasses, rum, and sugar imported from the French Caribbean.

  • Salutary neglect: An unofficial British policy of avoiding enforcement of navigation laws to promote American business.


Positives and negatives of mercantilism

Positives and Negatives of Mercantilism

  • Positives:

    • Colonials held more independence and opportunities than their English brethren

    • Had British military protection free of charge and profited from British trade

  • Negatives:

    • Suffered from high export prices

    • Writs of Assistance harassed colonial shipping to reduce illegal trade

      • “No taxation without representation”


The acts that broke the camel s back

The Acts that Broke the Camel’s Back

  • Proclamation of 1763

  • Sugar Act

  • Quartering Act

  • Stamp Act

  • Townshend Acts

  • Tea Act


America s separation issues

America’s Separation Issues

  • Colonists felt physically separated from England

    • Led to support of republicanism

  • Colonists felt economically separated

    • Colonial money not accepted for taxes

    • Felt used under mercantilism (salutary neglect)

  • Colonists felt philosophically separated

    • Support of Enlightenment ideas


Virginia resolves

Virginia Resolves

  • Patrick Henry of VA rejected the taxes because the colonists were not fully represented in Parliament.

  • PM Grenville claimed colonists had “virtual representation”.

  • Colonists did not necessarily want direct representation – would mean higher taxes.


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It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry, "Peace! Peace!" -- but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death!


Sons of liberty

Sons of Liberty

  • Led by Samuel Adams

  • Violently enforced

    boycotts of British goods

  • Used tar and feathering

  • Caused all Stamp Act agents to resign, causing the repeal of the Stamp Act


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Boston

Massacre

What’s wrong with this picture?


Boston tea party

Boston Tea Party


The committees of correspondence

The Committees of Correspondence

  • Samuel Adams established the “committees of correspondence” – letter-writing network with the goal of exchanging news and organizing resistance.

    • Quickly grew to all the colonies.

    • Acted as colonial governing groups, ignoring or overriding the rulings of colonial legislatures

    • Grew into the first American congresses (would send the delegates to Continental Conventions)


First continental congress 1774

First Continental Congress (1774)

  • Philadelphia, 12 colonies present (GA absent)

  • Did NOT desire independence, but did send the king a list of grievances.

  • Wrote Declaration of Rights and Grievances: Raised fourteen points of colonial protest. It asserted that

    • Only the colonial assemblies had a right to tax the colonies. (no taxation without representation).

    • Trial by jury was a right, and the use of Admiralty Courts was abusive.

    • Colonists possessed all the Rights of Englishmen.

    • Without voting rights, Parliament could not represent the colonists.


Common sense

Common Sense

  • Thomas Paine’s Common Sense: Urged American independence as common sense

  • Wrote plainly and convincingly

    • In the physical world, the smaller body never ruled the larger one

    • It was illogical for a country to rule another from 3000 miles away

    • He had no respect for a king who did not protect his own people


The revolution begins

The Revolution Begins!

The Shot Heard ‘Round the World


Lexington and concord

Lexington and Concord


Praying for peace

Praying for Peace

The Second Continental Congress met in May 1775 in Philadelphia to address the worsening situation.

Olive Branch Petition: Pledged America’s loyalty and asked for peace

King George III formally declared the colonies to be in a state of rebellion


The matchup

The Matchup!

Britain

The Colonies

Fighting a defensive war with home-field advantage

Strong leadership

Had a defined cause

Poorly trained, poorly equipped army; no navy to speak of

No central government; no stable economic system

  • Best trained, best equipped army and navy on Earth

  • Immense wealth

  • Estimated 50,000 American Loyalists (Tories)

  • Poor officers

  • Difficulty providing supplies overseas


  • The dividing line

    The Dividing Line

    Patriots

    Tories

    Usually older and from conservative families

    Usually from richer, aristocratic families

    Were strong in areas where the Anglican Church was strong

    • Generally younger

    • Lived in areas where the Anglican Church was weak

    • Generally were inland and away from the coast (which were links back to England);


    The early war

    The Early War

    • The 2ndCC took measures to raise money to create an army and navy

    • Appointed George Washington as general of the continental army

    • The Americans took Bunker Hill, only to have the British take it in a frontal assault

      • “Don’t shoot until you see the whites of their eyes”


    America secedes from great britain

    America Secedes From Great Britain

    • Richard Henry Lee made a motion for independence on June 7, 1776.

    • A committee was formed to create a formal written declaration of America’s independence:

      • John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman


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    It’s Too Late To Apologize


    Declaration of independence

    Declaration of Independence

    July 4, 1776


    Declaration of independence1

    Declaration of Independence


    Friendship with france

    Friendship with France

    The Ladies Man

    at work!


    Genius george

    Genius George

    General Washington faltered when faced with a strong British force in New York

    December 26, 1776 – Washington surprises the Hessians at Trenton after crossing the icy Delaware

    America’s first victory; boosted morale

    A week later, Americans scored another victory at Princeton after leaving their campfires burning as a distraction for the British


    Britain s plan b

    Britain’s Plan B

    • England’s new plan was to divide the colonies. The plan had three parts:

      • Col. Barry St. Leger would move from Lake Erie eastward along the Mohawk River.

      • Gen. Burgoyne would descend from Montreal on Lake Champlain

      • Gen. Howe would drive men northward from NY up the Albany River. They’d all meet in Albany.

    • Problems:

      • Benedict Arnold had stuck around in Montreal and delayed the British until Spring.

      • Terrain was difficult and supplies ran low

      • St. Leger’s men were defeated and turned back; Howe decided to use his own plan and attack Washington at Philadelphia(whom he defeated)


    A bitter winter at valley forge

    A Bitter Winter at Valley Forge

    Washington’s troops camped for the winter at Valley Forge

    It was bitterly cold, morale and supplies were low, desertions were high

    Von Steuben’s trainings were kicked into high gear, transforming the rag-tag militia into a true army.


    A crucial battle

    A Crucial Battle

    • Burgoyne's 7,000 troops arrived at the site of the planned battle at Saratoga tired and weary. He was alone, the other 2/3 of the plan didn't arrive.

      • He had no choice but to surrender on Oct. 17, 1777.

    • Saratoga was the turning point in the war because

      • it was truly a major victory in military terms

      • it gave a huge boost to colonial morale

      • it convinced France that America might actually have a chance to win and to openly aid America.


    Friendship with france1

    Friendship with France

    LL Cool Frank


    A world war emerges

    A World War Emerges

    • France pledges aid to America, then goes to war with England

      • Longtime enemy of England

      • Louis XVI wanted to show his people he was a strong leader

    • France’s navy would prove to be the most essential element of its alliance with the colonies.

    • France spirals into severe debt as a result of its aid to the colonies, helping spark the French Revolution


    Waging war

    Waging War

    • The British planned to attack the South.

      • The war turned ugly here. The Americans fought guerilla style, thrashing at British supply lines. The most famous was Francis Marion (the "Swamp Fox") who'd attack then disappear with his men into the swamps.

    • 1777 was called "the bloody year" on the frontier when the British paid Indians for scalps.


    Yorktown

    Yorktown

    • British General Cornwallis moved his men to Chesapeake Bay to get more supplies via the British navy.

      • The French navy moved in and sealed off the Bay.

      • Gen. Washington and Rochambeau saw the chance and moved their troops in to seal off the peninsula.

      • Cornwallis was penned in and was forced to surrender.


    Yorktown1

    Yorktown?

    • Click to Add Text


    Ending the war

    Ending the War

    • Treaty of Paris, 1783: Ended the American Revolution.

      • England recognized American independence

      • Colonists gained control all the way to the Mississippi River.


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