Chapter 4 the chemistry of carbon
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Chapter 4. The Chemistry of Carbon. Chemistry of Life. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds C atoms are versatile building blocks 4 electrons in outer shell 4 stable covalent bonds. Hydrocarbons. Simplest C molecules = hydrocarbons combinations of C & H

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Chapter 4 the chemistry of carbon

Chapter 4.The Chemistry of Carbon


Chemistry of life
Chemistry of Life

  • Organic chemistry is the study of carboncompounds

  • C atoms are versatile building blocks

    • 4 electrons in outer shell

    • 4 stable covalent bonds


Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons

  • Simplest C molecules = hydrocarbons

    • combinations of C & H

  • Simplest HC molecule = methane

    • 1 carbon bound to 4 H atoms

    • non-polar

    • not soluble in H2O

    • hydrophobic

    • stable

    • very little attraction between molecules

    • a gas at room temperature


Hydrocarbons can grow
Hydrocarbons can grow

methane

ethane

  • adding C-C bonds

    • straight line

    • Branching

    • Ring

hexane

isohexane

cyclohexane


Isomers
Isomers

  • Molecules with same molecular formula but different structures

    • different chemical properties


Structural isomers
Structural isomers

  • Molecules differ in structural arrangement of atoms


Geometric isomers
Geometric isomers

  • Molecules differ in arrangement around C=C double bond


Enantiomer stereo isomers
Enantiomer (stereo) isomers

  • Molecules which are mirror images of each other

    • left-handed & right-handed versions

      • “L” versions are biologically active



Functional groups1
Functional groups

  • Different elements added to organic molecules that change their properties


Hydroxyl
Hydroxyl

  • –OH

    • alcohols

    • names typically end in -ol

      • ethanol


Carbonyl
Carbonyl

  • C=O

    • O double bonded to C

      • if C=O at end molecule = aldelhyde

      • if C=O in middle of molecule = ketone


Carboxyl
Carboxyl

  • –COOH

    • compounds with COOH = acids

      • fatty acids

      • amino acids


Amino
Amino

  • -NH2

    • compounds with NH2 = amines

      • amnio acids

    • NH2 acts as base

      • ammonia picks up H+ from solution


Sulfhydryl
Sulfhydryl

  • –SH

    • S bonded to H

      • compounds with SH = thiols

      • SH groups stabilize the structure of proteins


Phosphate
Phosphate

  • –PO4

    • function of PO4 is to transfer energy between organic molecules (ATP)


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