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Currently how many Mexican immigrants are there in the United States?. In 2009, there were approximately 11.5 million Mexican immigrants in the United States 1. 1: http://pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID=112. 62%, or almost 2/3 of all Mexican immigrants, are illegal 1.

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in 2009 there were approximately 11 5 million mexican immigrants in the united states 1
In 2009, there were approximately 11.5 million Mexican immigrants in the United States1

1: http://pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID=112

62 or almost 2 3 of all mexican immigrants are illegal 1
62%, or almost 2/3 of all Mexican immigrants, are illegal1

2: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/publications/ois_ill_pe_2009.pdf

why are so many mexicans leaving mexico
Why are so many Mexicans leaving Mexico?

By: Kaitlin Farrell

April 5, 2010

slide8
1,969 mile border
  • History of immigration between the two countries
  • Most Mexicans immigrate to the southwest
  • Circular migration-->permanent settlement
  • Mexican-American War (1846-1848)
slide9

“In the felicitous phrase of contemporary immigrant activists,

they didn’t cross the border; the border crossed them.”1

http://www.focus-migration.de/Mexico.5296.0.html?&L=1

what does this all mean
What Does This All Mean?
  • Family connections across the border help propel immigration!
  • Almost 2/3 of the Mexican population has a relative living in the United States1
  • In a survey of about 5,000 Mexican immigrants, 80% reported having a relative other than a spouse or a child in the U.S.2
  • Remittances

1: http://www.focus-migration.de/Mexico.5296.0.html?&L=1

2: http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-12-06-immigrant-survey_x.htm

the drug wars
The Drug Wars
  • Most prevalent in the northern Mexico, especially Ciudad Juarez
  • Gruesome
  • U.S. is partly to blame- we are the consumers
  • Mexican President Felipe Calderon’s own war on drugs, 2007
  • 10,031 have died in drug-related deaths since 20071
  • Has created a new immigrant group of asylum seekers, typically “middle-class, employed, and frightened”2

1: http://projects.latimes.com/mexico-drug-war/#/its-a-war

2: http://articles.latimes.com/2009/mar/04/nation/na-asylum4/2

the statistics
The Statistics
  • While the percentage of Mexico’s poor is about the same as it was 20 years ago, the population has risen1
  • Large gap between rich and poor
  • In 2008:
    • 19.5 million people living in “extreme” poverty
    • 50.6 million people living in poverty2 (just about half of the total population of Mexico)

1: http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/213/45611.html

2: http://www.caller.com/news/2009/dec/13/mexico-needs-defeat-both-poverty-cartels/

slide16
Poverty is most prevalent in rural areas
  • Even though only about 25% of the population lives in rural areas, they represent about 70% of Mexico’s extreme poor and about 46% of Mexico’s moderately poor1

1: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTMEXICO/Resources/A_Study_of_Rural_Poverty_in_Mexico.pdf

single cause not likely
Single Cause? Not Likely
  • Why such poverty?
    • No one single cause
    • Much has to do with the country’s unstable past
    • Quick history lesson on Mexico…
mexican political structure
Mexican Political Structure
  • Independence from Spain declared in 1810
  • Have had 3 different constitutions since then
  • Authoritarian presidents
  • Revolution in 1910, lasted a decade
slide21
3 branches of government, but executive has traditionally held most of the power
  • Highly centralized
  • Until 2000, the monopoly political party was the PRI
  • No re-election policy
  • Corruption & patronage among officials
economy
Economy
  • After years of instability due to the Revolution, experienced rapid economic growth between 1946-1970
    • Predominately urban for first time
    • “Mexicanize” the economy & growth of national industries1

1: A Concise History of Mexico, p. 256

economic turmoil
Economic turmoil
  • 1970s-1980s = economic crises!
  • Problem with “Mexicanizing” the economy was that it created a closed environment
as a result
As a result…
  • Mexican leaders opened up the country to international investment, trade, and competition (aka globalization)
  • NAFTA, 1994
    • Pros and Cons
therefore
Therefore…
  • Mexico’s political and economic structures have created many shortfalls
  • The economic crises especially have “hampered overall growth, halted the creation of new jobs and pushed large numbers of the lower middle class into poverty.”1

1: http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/213/45611.html

is poverty improving
Is Poverty Improving?
  • Some say yes because of statistics
  • But in reality, still large numbers of Mexicans living in poverty
  • Still see U.S. as opportunity to advance
    • 1/3 of Mexicans would still move to U.S. if they could1

1: http://pewglobal.org/reports/display.php?ReportID=266

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Why are so many Mexicans leaving Mexico?
    • Family ties
    • Escape the violence
    • Escape poverty
  • All 3 are connected
bibliography
Bibliography
  • Baker, B. C., Hoefer, M., & Rytina, N. (2009). Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2009. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/publications/ois_ill_pe_2009.pdf
  • Becker, A. & McDonnell, P. J. (2009, March 4). Drug war creates new class of refugees. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2009/mar/04/nation/na-asylum4
  • Caller.com. (2009, December 13). Mexico needs to defeat both poverty, cartels. Retrieved from http://www.caller.com/news/2009/dec/13/mexico-needs-defeat-both-poverty-cartels/
  • Chavez, A. H. (2006). Mexico: A Brief History. (A. Klatt, Trans.). Berkely , CA: University of California Press.
  • Cevallos, D. (2005, August 23). Not Everyone Celebrates Improved Poverty Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/211/45123.html
  • Cohn, D., & Passel, J. (2009). Mexican Immigrants: How Many Come? How Many Leave? Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID=112
  • Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. (2010). Spotlight: Remittances to Mexico 
Cross-Border Money Flows Slowed by U.S. Slump. Retrieved from http://www.dallasfed.org/research/swe/2010/swe1001d.cfm#1
  • Focus Migration. (n.d.). Country Profile:Mexico. Retrieved from http://www.focus-migration.de/Mexico.5296.0.html?&L=1
  • Hamnett, B. (1999). A Concise History of Mexico. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
slide29
Income Generation and Social Protection for the Poor. (n.d.) A Study of Rural Poverty in Mexico. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTMEXICO/Resources/A_Study_of_Rural_Poverty_in_Mexico.pdf
  • Jordan, M. & Sullivan, K. (2003, March 22). Trade Brings Riches, but Not to Mexico’s Poor. Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/213/45611.html
  • Los Angeles Times. (2010, April 5). Mexico Under Seige: The drug war at our doorstep. Retrieved from http://projects.latimes.com/mexico-drug-war/#/its-a-war
  • Nasse, H. E. (2005, December 6). Family, better jobs pull Mexicans to USA. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-12-06-immigrant-survey_x.htm
  • Pew Global Attitudes Project. (2009, September 23). Most Mexicans See Better Life in U.S. - One-In-Three Would Migrate: Troubled by Crime, the Economy, Drugs and Corruption. Retrieved from http://pewglobal.org/reports/display.php?ReportID=266
  • Pew Hispanic Center. (2009). Mexican Immigrants in the United States, 2008. Retrieved from http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1191/mexican-immigrants-in-america-largest-group
  • Terrazas, A. (2010). Mexican Immigrants in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.migrationinformation.org/USfocus/display.cfm?id=767
  • Voice of America. (2010, March 17). Mexican Government Struggles to Contain Drug War Violence. VANews.com. Retrieved from http://www1.voanews.com/english/news/americas/Mexican-Government-Struggles-to-Contain-Drug-War-Violence-88275562.html
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