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UPA Package 2, Module 6. LAND REFORM. Land Reform in other countries. India The mixed impact of tenancy reform legislation

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land reform in other countries
Land Reform in other countries

India

The mixed impact of tenancy reform legislation

India is characterized not only by a diverse history of land rights arrangements that show significant variation across states who have the responsibility for land-related legislation. The far-reaching impact of different assignment of property rights under the zamindari and ryotwari revenue settlement with the British has been widely noted in the literature.

land reform in other countries1
Land Reform in other countries

India

The mixed impact of tenancy reform legislation

Land reform comprises three elements, namely (i) the abolition of intermediary interests shortly after independence; (ii) different measures of tenancy reform and regulation of the land lease market; and (iii) the legislation of land ownership ceilings. As the first of this measures is widely judged to have been highly successful, we focus on the two remaining items.

land reform in other countries2
Land Reform in other countries

Colombia

Implementation of market assisted land reform

In Colombia, land reform has been a long-standing concern to correct an extremely inequitable distribution of land, to increase the productivity and environmental sustainability of agricultural production, and to reduce widespread rural violence. Maldistribution of land in rural areas, while dating back to colonial encomiendas, has been reinforced and exacerbated in more recent times by four policy related factors,

land reform in other countries3
Land Reform in other countries

Colombia

Implementation of market assisted land reform

(i) tax incentives for agriculture which caused rich individuals to acquire land to offset taxes on non-agricultural enterprises;

(ii) legal impediments to the smooth functioning of the land rental and sales markets;

(iii) Credit and interest rate subsidies plus disproportionate protection of the livestock subsector provided incentives for agricultural cultivation with very low labor intensity; and

(iv) the use of land to launder money that had been acquired by drug lords.

land reform in other countries4
Land Reform in other countries

Brazil

Land-based poverty alleviation

With a land distribution among the most unequal in the world, the situation in Brazil is characterized by a large extent of landlessness and a politically very vocal demand for land reform To help the Government accomplish the goal of poverty reduction, the Bank has been building on they highly successful experience of community-driven projects in the country’s Northeast, to develop a program of community based land reform that is complementary to the existing approach which, from 1995 through the end of 1999, has resettled approximately 372,500 families.

land reform in other countries5
Land Reform in other countries

Brazil

Land-based poverty alleviation

Under the community-based scheme, eligible beneficiary groups (community organizations) receive assistance to identify and acquire land and to make complementary productive investments in order to be able to make productive use of this land. The pilot has been implemented faster than originally expected, benefiting about 15,000 households thus far.

land reform in china
Land Reform in China

Three phrases of land reform in China :

before 1949 ---phase I

1949~1978 --- II phrase

Replacement of private property rights by the

socialist hierarchy

since 1978 --- III phrase

a new reform program

urban land institutions in china since 1978
Urban Land Institutions in China since 1978

Main Instruments in the Urban Land Use Reform:

Land taxation

Separation of land-use rights from ownership

Dual-track land system

urban land institutions in china since 19781
Urban Land Institutions in China since 1978

Major Aspects of the Reform:

China’s Urban Land Property Right System

Urban Land Disposition Mechanism

urban land institutions in china since 19782
Urban Land Institutions in China since 1978

Problems in the System of Distribution of Urban Land Benefits :

The system of land tax and charge is not reasonable

The structure of the distribution of urban land benefits is not reasonable

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