Week 7: Production + Consumption
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Week 7: Production + Consumption. Lecture Contents. Products today Why do we consume so much? Product Lifecycles New Consumption. Why?. Place body text here or bullet points… Point One Point Two Point Three. How many products are there in the average Household?.

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Lecture Contents

Products today

Why do we consume so much?

Product Lifecycles

New Consumption


Why?

  • Place body text here or bullet points…

  • Point One

  • Point Two

  • Point Three

How many products are there in the average Household?

Images to right of slide

With info underneath.

Other body text to go here


Why?

  • Place body text here or bullet points…

  • Point One

  • Point Two

  • Point Three

How many products do we consume?

Images to right of slide

With info underneath.

Other body text to go here



Product Facts

Households now contain over 1,000 products (compared to 25, 50 years ago)

1 new product appears on the shelf everyday, 1 is removed every 3 days

560kg per person of waste generated in developed countries (3 times more than in 1984) [www.uneptie.org]

1000kg of products purchased per year by consumers, only 100kg is retained as long term durables.

Average age of household appliance when discarded ranged from 2-12 years. Only ¼ were sold or donated for re-use.

1 in 10 products still worked when discarded.


0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

washing machine

vacuum cleaner

television

razor

video

stereo

television

stove

computer

still functioning

not functioning properly

not functioning

Chart courtesy of the Eternally Yours Foundation, 1999


Approaching market saturation, style rather than function becomes the selling point.

New technologies supersede old at phenomenal rates.

Over designed products

Design life – Black and Decker drill: 25hrs

Use life – 1 Hour

CD’s played once over their lives

Products designed to fail

Use life – Nokia phone 18 months

More products = more power consumption


Why? becomes the selling point.

  • Place body text here or bullet points…

  • Point One

  • Point Two

  • Point Three

Why?

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With info underneath.

Other body text to go here


Industrialisation becomes the selling point.

Mass Production


Cheap Energy becomes the selling point.

Available Oil Reserves


Globalisation + Global Movement becomes the selling point.


Increased leisure time becomes the selling point.

More disposable Income


Status, Consumer Society becomes the selling point.

Planned Obsolescence


Status, Consumer Society becomes the selling point.

Planned Obsolescence


Why? becomes the selling point.

  • Place body text here or bullet points…

  • Point One

  • Point Two

  • Point Three

What impact do these products have?

Images to right of slide

With info underneath.

Other body text to go here


… . Phases in a product’s lifecycle becomes the selling point.

Raw material extractionWood from forest, oil from well, metal ore from mine, etc.

Material processingWood to paper, oil to plastic, ores to metal alloys, etc.

Component manufacturingPaper printed, plastic molded, alloys into circuitry, etc.

Assembly & packagingProduct is assembled and packaged with documentation.

Distribution & purchaseProduct is distributed and purchased.

Installation & useEnergy and additional materials may be used.

Maintenance & upgradingProduct cleaned, parts replaced or upgraded

Transport(among all phases) Via train, truck, car, sea vessel or airplane

Reuse, recycling or composting Product or component reuse or material recycling.

Incineration or landfillingProduct or components are burned or buried in landfill.


Phases in a product’s lifecycle becomes the selling point.


Example: becomes the selling point.

What are the phases in the lifecycle of a

toothbrush?


Material Extraction becomes the selling point.

Oil is extracted from the earth


Materials Processing becomes the selling point.

Raw materials refined & combined with chemicals to form plastic


Component Manufacturing becomes the selling point.

The materials are formed into the final product.


Assembly and Packaging becomes the selling point.

The toothbrush is packaged individually and boxed in large quantities.


Distribution and Purchase becomes the selling point.

The brush is distributed and bought. Waste from packaging


Installation and use becomes the selling point.

Brush teeth, toothpaste, water, waste.


Maintenance and upgrade becomes the selling point.

Replacement


End-of-Life becomes the selling point.

The Brush is returned for material recycling?


What are the alternatives? becomes the selling point.


Class exercise: becomes the selling point.

What are the phases in the lifecycle of a Glass?


Discussion: becomes the selling point.

Why should or shouldn’t we consider all of the phases in the life of a product?


80-90% of a products environmental & economic impacts decided upon in design & development stages

Early intervention is essential


Sustainable Product Development decided upon in design & development stages

Sustainable Design is concerned with balancing economic, environmental and social aspects in the creation of products and services… To create sustainable products and services that increase stakeholders' 'quality of life' while at the same time achieving major reductions in resource and energy use, will require a significant emphasis on stimulating new ideas through higher levels of creativity and innovation (Charter & Tischner)

The process of designing goods & services which consider all tenets of Sustainable Development. Holistic approach to the design and development of products and services.


Courtesy of Gavin Harte ESD Training decided upon in design & development stages


New ways of doing things decided upon in design & development stages

Transparency in design practice

Responsible Design (Design for other 90%, Upgrade, Reuse, Second Life)

Emotionally Enhanced Products (Extended life spans)

Dematerialisation

Product Service Systems

Design for Limited Life spans

Looking to Nature


Transparency in design practice decided upon in design & development stages

Transparent, Honest

Patagonia ‘Footprint Chronicles’

Accountability

Responsibility

http://www.patagonia.com/web/us/footprint/index.jsp


Social decided upon in design & development stages

Environment

Economy

What’s right?

What’s wrong?


Design for the other 90% decided upon in design & development stages


Design for the other 90% decided upon in design & development stages


Second Life decided upon in design & development stages


Responsible Design decided upon in design & development stages

Aeron Chair

Hermann Miller


Responsible Design decided upon in design & development stages


Design for responsible behaviour decided upon in design & development stages


Dematerialisation decided upon in design & development stages

IPod

Dematerialised Solution


Dematerialisation decided upon in design & development stages

  • Emotional Attachment

    • Experience

    • Personalise

    • Totally your own

    • Inconspicuous design

    • Upgradable software

    • Clever marketing

    • Negatives

    • Is it really needed?

    • How sustainable are Apples

    • Motives? (Batteries)


Limited Life spans decided upon in design & development stages

Packaging

Perfect packaging solution

Designed for limited lifespan

100% organic matter

Edible: Disintegrates (with help) after use

Inexpensive

Easy to produce


Biomimicry decided upon in design & development stages

Random pattern

Inspired by Nature

Longer life

Place in any direction

Infinite adaptability

Easily replaced

Reduce Waste

Gravity adhesion


Biomimicry decided upon in design & development stages


Service Systems decided upon in design & development stages


Product Service Systems decided upon in design & development stages

Time charges

1 hour : £4.9524 hours (weekdays) : £35.0024 hours (weekends) : £49.505 days (Monday to Friday) : £1507 days : £19530 days : £695

Streetcar provides 30 miles' free petrol per calendar day. After that, additional mileage is charged at 19p per mile


Product Service Systems decided upon in design & development stages


Product Service Systems decided upon in design & development stages


Washing your dirty linen: decided upon in design & development stages Level 1

Eco-Efficient- More with less


Washing your dirty linen: decided upon in design & development stages Level 2

Eco-Sufficiency –Less with less


Washing your dirty linen: decided upon in design & development stages Level 3


Washing your dirty linen: decided upon in design & development stages Level 4

http://www.forumforthefuture.org/projects/fashion-animations


Further Reading and Viewing: decided upon in design & development stages

Nicholas Negroponte (One Laptop per child): www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/nicholas_negroponte_on_one_laptop_per_child_two_years_on.html

Ray Anderson: EcoBiz www.youtube.com/watch?v=BerHLW6KhRY

Jacqui Novagratz: www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/jacqueline_novogratz_invests_in_ending_poverty.html

Schumacher, E.F, 1993, Small is Beautiful: A Study of Economics as if People Mattered,Vintage Press.

Packard, Vance, 1960 The Wastemakers David McKay Company.

Papenek, Victor, 2002, Design for the Real World, Thames and Hudson

Smith, Cynthia, E, 2008 Design for the Other 90%, Cooper-Hewitt Museum.

McDonagh, W & Braungart, M, 2009 Cradle to Cradle Vintage Press

Fuad-Luke, Alastair, 2009 (3rd ed), The Eco-Design Handbook, Thames and Hudson.

ed. Steffen, Alex, 2008 Worldchanging: A User’s guide to the 21stcentury, Harry N Abrams

Mau, Bruce & The Institute without Boundaries, 2004, Massive Change, Phaidon Press


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