Week 7: Production + Consumption
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Week 7: Production + Consumption. Lecture Contents. Products today Why do we consume so much? Product Lifecycles New Consumption. Why?. Place body text here or bullet points… Point One Point Two Point Three. How many products are there in the average Household?.

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Week 7: Production + Consumption

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Week 7: Production + Consumption


Lecture Contents

Products today

Why do we consume so much?

Product Lifecycles

New Consumption


Why?

  • Place body text here or bullet points…

  • Point One

  • Point Two

  • Point Three

How many products are there in the average Household?

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With info underneath.

Other body text to go here


Why?

  • Place body text here or bullet points…

  • Point One

  • Point Two

  • Point Three

How many products do we consume?

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With info underneath.

Other body text to go here


…..products today


Product Facts

Households now contain over 1,000 products (compared to 25, 50 years ago)

1 new product appears on the shelf everyday, 1 is removed every 3 days

560kg per person of waste generated in developed countries (3 times more than in 1984) [www.uneptie.org]

1000kg of products purchased per year by consumers, only 100kg is retained as long term durables.

Average age of household appliance when discarded ranged from 2-12 years. Only ¼ were sold or donated for re-use.

1 in 10 products still worked when discarded.


0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

washing machine

vacuum cleaner

television

razor

video

stereo

television

stove

computer

still functioning

not functioning properly

not functioning

Chart courtesy of the Eternally Yours Foundation, 1999


Approaching market saturation, style rather than function becomes the selling point.

New technologies supersede old at phenomenal rates.

Over designed products

Design life – Black and Decker drill: 25hrs

Use life – 1 Hour

CD’s played once over their lives

Products designed to fail

Use life – Nokia phone 18 months

More products = more power consumption


Why?

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  • Point One

  • Point Two

  • Point Three

Why?

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Industrialisation

Mass Production


Cheap Energy

Available Oil Reserves


Globalisation + Global Movement


Increased leisure time

More disposable Income


Status, Consumer Society

Planned Obsolescence


Status, Consumer Society

Planned Obsolescence


Why?

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  • Point One

  • Point Two

  • Point Three

What impact do these products have?

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… . Phases in a product’s lifecycle

Raw material extractionWood from forest, oil from well, metal ore from mine, etc.

Material processingWood to paper, oil to plastic, ores to metal alloys, etc.

Component manufacturingPaper printed, plastic molded, alloys into circuitry, etc.

Assembly & packagingProduct is assembled and packaged with documentation.

Distribution & purchaseProduct is distributed and purchased.

Installation & useEnergy and additional materials may be used.

Maintenance & upgradingProduct cleaned, parts replaced or upgraded

Transport(among all phases) Via train, truck, car, sea vessel or airplane

Reuse, recycling or composting Product or component reuse or material recycling.

Incineration or landfillingProduct or components are burned or buried in landfill.


Phases in a product’s lifecycle


Example:

What are the phases in the lifecycle of a

toothbrush?


Material Extraction

Oil is extracted from the earth


Materials Processing

Raw materials refined & combined with chemicals to form plastic


Component Manufacturing

The materials are formed into the final product.


Assembly and Packaging

The toothbrush is packaged individually and boxed in large quantities.


Distribution and Purchase

The brush is distributed and bought. Waste from packaging


Installation and use

Brush teeth, toothpaste, water, waste.


Maintenance and upgrade

Replacement


End-of-Life

The Brush is returned for material recycling?


What are the alternatives?


Class exercise:

What are the phases in the lifecycle of a Glass?


Discussion:

Why should or shouldn’t we consider all of the phases in the life of a product?


80-90% of a products environmental & economic impacts decided upon in design & development stages

Early intervention is essential


Sustainable Product Development

Sustainable Design is concerned with balancing economic, environmental and social aspects in the creation of products and services… To create sustainable products and services that increase stakeholders' 'quality of life' while at the same time achieving major reductions in resource and energy use, will require a significant emphasis on stimulating new ideas through higher levels of creativity and innovation (Charter & Tischner)

The process of designing goods & services which consider all tenets of Sustainable Development. Holistic approach to the design and development of products and services.


Courtesy of Gavin Harte ESD Training


New ways of doing things

Transparency in design practice

Responsible Design (Design for other 90%, Upgrade, Reuse, Second Life)

Emotionally Enhanced Products (Extended life spans)

Dematerialisation

Product Service Systems

Design for Limited Life spans

Looking to Nature


Transparency in design practice

Transparent, Honest

Patagonia ‘Footprint Chronicles’

Accountability

Responsibility

http://www.patagonia.com/web/us/footprint/index.jsp


Social

Environment

Economy

What’s right?

What’s wrong?


Design for the other 90%


Design for the other 90%


Second Life


Responsible Design

Aeron Chair

Hermann Miller


Responsible Design


Design for responsible behaviour


Dematerialisation

IPod

Dematerialised Solution


Dematerialisation

  • Emotional Attachment

    • Experience

    • Personalise

    • Totally your own

    • Inconspicuous design

    • Upgradable software

    • Clever marketing

    • Negatives

    • Is it really needed?

    • How sustainable are Apples

    • Motives? (Batteries)


Limited Life spans

Packaging

Perfect packaging solution

Designed for limited lifespan

100% organic matter

Edible: Disintegrates (with help) after use

Inexpensive

Easy to produce


Biomimicry

Random pattern

Inspired by Nature

Longer life

Place in any direction

Infinite adaptability

Easily replaced

Reduce Waste

Gravity adhesion


Biomimicry


Service Systems


Product Service Systems

Time charges

1 hour : £4.9524 hours (weekdays) : £35.0024 hours (weekends) : £49.505 days (Monday to Friday) : £1507 days : £19530 days : £695

Streetcar provides 30 miles' free petrol per calendar day. After that, additional mileage is charged at 19p per mile


Product Service Systems


Product Service Systems


Washing your dirty linen: Level 1

Eco-Efficient- More with less


Washing your dirty linen: Level 2

Eco-Sufficiency –Less with less


Washing your dirty linen: Level 3


Washing your dirty linen: Level 4

http://www.forumforthefuture.org/projects/fashion-animations


Further Reading and Viewing:

Nicholas Negroponte (One Laptop per child): www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/nicholas_negroponte_on_one_laptop_per_child_two_years_on.html

Ray Anderson: EcoBiz www.youtube.com/watch?v=BerHLW6KhRY

Jacqui Novagratz: www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/jacqueline_novogratz_invests_in_ending_poverty.html

Schumacher, E.F, 1993, Small is Beautiful: A Study of Economics as if People Mattered,Vintage Press.

Packard, Vance, 1960 The Wastemakers David McKay Company.

Papenek, Victor, 2002, Design for the Real World, Thames and Hudson

Smith, Cynthia, E, 2008 Design for the Other 90%, Cooper-Hewitt Museum.

McDonagh, W & Braungart, M, 2009 Cradle to Cradle Vintage Press

Fuad-Luke, Alastair, 2009 (3rd ed), The Eco-Design Handbook, Thames and Hudson.

ed. Steffen, Alex, 2008 Worldchanging: A User’s guide to the 21stcentury, Harry N Abrams

Mau, Bruce & The Institute without Boundaries, 2004, Massive Change, Phaidon Press


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