Angular position velocity and acceleration
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Angular Position, Velocity and Acceleration. AP Physics C Mrs. Coyle. Rigid Body. -An object or system of particles in which distances between the particles are constant. There is no deformity in the object. - Real object have some deformity. Translation , Rotation , Rolling.

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Angular position velocity and acceleration

Angular Position, Velocity and Acceleration

AP Physics C

Mrs. Coyle


Rigid body

Rigid Body

-An object or system of particles in which

distances between the particles are constant. There is no deformity in the object.

- Real object have some deformity.


Translation rotation rolling

Translation, Rotation, Rolling

  • Translational motion: all particles in the object have the same instantaneous velocity (linear motion)

  • Rotational motion: all particles in the object have the same instantaneous angular velocity

  • Rolling motion: combination of translation and rotation


Polar coordinates

Polar Coordinates

  • Radius r

  • Angle q measured counterclockwise from the + x axis

r


Angular position q is positive counterclockwise from the x axis

-Angular position, q is positive counterclockwise from the + x axis

O is the point through which the axis of rotation passes.

r


Angular displacement

Angular Displacement

Dq=q-qo

(Final Angle-Initial Angle)

r

In this figure qo=0


Units for angular displacement

Units for Angular Displacement

  • Radian

    • One full revolution is 2p radians.

    • Radian is actually unitless.

    • The radian is used in the angular kinematics equations.

  • Degree

    • 60 minutes in 1 degree, 60 seconds in 1 minute

    • The degree is not used in the angular kinematics equations.


Radian

Radian

  • Radian (rad) is the angle subtended by an arc length, s, equal to the radius.

  • When s=r, q=1 rad

s=r

r


How many radii lengths fit in an arc length s

How many radii lengths fit in an arc length s?

q= s s=qr

r

q in radians

r meters

s meters

  • Why is the radian actually unitless?


Angular position velocity and acceleration

1 rad = = 57.3°

q [rad] = [degrees]


Average angular speed

Average Angular Speed

SI unit : rad/sec

or 1/sec or sec-1

  • Note: common unit rpm (revolutions per minute)

  • Angular speed will be positive if qis increasing (counterclockwise)


Instantaneous angular speed

Instantaneous Angular Speed


Average angular acceleration

Average Angular Acceleration


Instantaneous angular acceleration

Instantaneous Angular Acceleration

  • Units: rad/s² or s-2

  • Angular acceleration is positive if an object rotating counterclockwise is speeding up or if an object rotating clockwise is slowing down.


Right hand rule

Right Hand Rule

  • w, a are the magnitudes of the velocity and acceleration vectors.

  • The directions are given by the right-hand rule.


Right hand rule1

Right Hand Rule

Wrap the four fingers in the direction of rotation. The thumb shows the direction

of the angular velocity vector.

+ angular velocity for counterclockwise rotation.

- angular velocity for clockwise rotation.


Rotational kinematic equations

Rotational Kinematic Equations


Notes

Notes

  • In solving rotational motion problems you must chose a rotational axis.

  • The object may return to its original angular position.


Example 1

Example #1

The angular position of a swinging door is described by θ= 5+10t+2t2, θ is in radians and t is in sec. Detremine the angular position, angular speed and angular acceleration of the door a)at t=0 and b) at t=3s.

Ans: a)5 rad, 10rad/s, 4 rad/s2 , b)53 rad, 22rad/s, 4 rad/s2


Example 6

Example #6

A centrifuge in a medical lab rotates at an angular speed of 3600 rev/min. When switched off, it rotates 50 times before coming to rest. Find the constant angular acceleration of the centrifuge.

Ans: α= -2.26x10 2rad/s2


Example 9

Example #9

  • A) Find the angular speed of the Earth’s rotation on its axis. As the Earth turns towards the east, we see the sky turning towards the west at this same rate.

  • B) Cambridge, England is at longitude 0o and Saskatoon, is at longitude 107o west. How much time elapses after the Pleiades set in Cambridge until these stars fall below the western horizon in Saskatoon?

  • Ans: a)7.27x10 -5 rad/s, b) 2.57 x10 4 s or 428min.


Example 10

Example #10

A dog is running on the ground just outside a stationary merry-go-round with a constant angular speed of 0.750 rad/s. The dog sees a bone resting on the edge of the merry-go-round one third of a revolution in front of him. At the instant the dog sees the bone (t=0) the merry-go-round begins to move in the direction the dog is running with a constant angular acceleration of 0.015 rad/s2 .

a)At what time will the dog reach the bone? (A:2.88s)

b)If the dog runs past the bone how long after t=0 does the dog reach the bone a second time?(Ans:12.8s)


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