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HIV Drug Resistance Issues in Resource Limited Settings. Michael R. Jordan MD MPH WHO HIVDR Team Geneva, Switzerland. Introduction. End 2009, 5.2 million people on ART of the 15 million in need The rapid scale-up of ART successful Standardized, population based approaches

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Hiv drug resistance issues in resource limited settings

HIV Drug Resistance Issues in Resource Limited Settings

Michael R. Jordan MD MPH

WHO HIVDR Team

Geneva, Switzerland


Introduction
Introduction

  • End 2009, 5.2 million people on ART of the 15 million in need

  • The rapid scale-up of ART successful

    • Standardized, population based approaches

    • Inexpensive, generic, fixed dose combinations

  • Emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is inevitable

    • High replication and mutation rate

    • Necessity for lifelong treatment


Introduction1
Introduction

  • Universal access to ART accompanied by comprehensive global strategy to assess prevent HIVDR

  • WHO in collaboration with WHO/HIVResNet is leading global efforts for HIVDR surveillance and monitoring

  • Global strategy provides data for country programme planning to support evidence-based recommendations at national and regional levels


Implementation of WHO HIVDR strategy end 2009

Countries shaded purple have implemented one or more element of the strategy with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; countries shaded turquoise have implemented one of more of the elements of the strategy using alternate funding sources. Coloured pins denote national, regional and specialized HIVDR testing laboratories


Treat asia adult network
TREAT Asia Adult Network

  • South Korea:

  • Yonsei University, Seoul

  • India:

  • YRG Care, Chennai

  • Institute of Infectious Diseases, Pune

  • Japan:

  • Int’l Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo

  • People's Republic of China:

  • Beijing Ditan Hosp, Beijing

  • Queen Elizabeth Hosp, Hong Kong

  • Taiwan:

  • National Yang-Ming University, Taipei

  • Philippines:

  • Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Manila

  • Thailand:

  • HIV-NAT/ Thai Red Cross, Bangkok

  • Ramathibodi Hosp, Bangkok

  • Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai

  • Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai

  • Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok

  • Cambodia:

  • NCHADS, Phnom Penh

  • Malaysia:

  • Sungai Buloh Hosp, Kuala Lumpur

  • University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur

  • Papua New Guinea:

  • Port Moresby General Hospital

  • Indonesia:

  • Udayana University, Bali

  • Hospital Cipto Mangunkusumo, Jakarta

  • Singapore:

  • Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore


Paser network

Research centers

Clinical sites

  • Nigeria

  • LUTH (Lagos)

  • The Netherlands

  • UMCU (Utrecht)

  • AMC-CPCD (Amsterdam)

  • Uganda

  • JCRC-TREAT sites (Mbale, Kampala, Fort Portal)

  • Kenya

  • ICRH (Mombasa)

  • Kenya

  • CPGH (Mombasa)

  • Mater (Nairobi)

  • Uganda

  • JCRC (Kampala)

  • UVRI/MRC (Entebbe)

  • South Africa

  • Wits-MMH (Joburg)

  • Wits-CHRU (Joburg)

  • Zambia

  • Lusaka Trust (Lusaka)

  • KARA Clinic (Lusaka)

  • Coptic Hospital (Lusaka)

Reference laboratories

  • Uganda

  • JCRC (Kampala)

  • UVRI (Entebbe)

  • Zimbabwe

  • Newlands Clinic (Harare)

  • South Africa

  • Muelmed Hospital (Pretoria)

  • RTC Themba Lethu (Joburg)

  • RTC Acts Clinic (White River)

  • South Africa

  • Wits-MMH (Joburg)

PASER network


"Widespread, unregulated access to antiretroviral drugs in sub-Saharan Africa could lead to the rapid emergence of resistant viral strains, spelling doom for the individual, curtailing future treatment options, and leading to transmission of resistant virus."

Preventing antiretroviral anarchy in sub-Saharan Africa

AD Harries, DS Nyangulu, NJ Hargreaves, O Kaluwa and FM Salaniponi

The Lancet 2001 358: 410-4


Hivdr transmission threshold surveys
HIVDR Transmission Threshold Surveys sub-Saharan Africa could lead to the rapid emergence of resistant viral strains, spelling doom for the individual, curtailing future treatment options, and leading to transmission of resistant virus."


Reasons for low prevalence of transmitted dr hiv
Reasons for Low Prevalence of Transmitted DR HIV sub-Saharan Africa could lead to the rapid emergence of resistant viral strains, spelling doom for the individual, curtailing future treatment options, and leading to transmission of resistant virus."

  • Treatment coverage still relatively low

    • Especially >3 years ago

    • Models suggest need widespread treatment for 10 years

  • HAART from the START

    • Little history of mono- or dual therapy

    • Potent NNRTI-based regimens

    • When PIs used, boosted with RTV

  • Adherence

    • Social factors pressure high adherence rates

    • Greater social capital

    • Regimens more tolerant to missed doses than unboosted PI-based HAART


Monitoring emergence of hivdr during treatment
Monitoring emergence of HIVDR during treatment sub-Saharan Africa could lead to the rapid emergence of resistant viral strains, spelling doom for the individual, curtailing future treatment options, and leading to transmission of resistant virus."

  • Meta-analysis 89 studies in sub-Saharan Africa. 78%, 76%, 67% of 13,288 patients showed virological suppression after 6 , 12, 24months; comparable to those from developed countries1

  • 12 studies on acquired HIVDR in Botswana, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Patients receiving first-line ART showed large variations in the rate of reported resistance, 3.7%-49% after 24-163 weeks of ART2

1Barth et al, Lancet Inf Dis. 2010; 2Hamers et al. Antivir Ther 2008


Monitoring emergence of hivdr during treatment1
Monitoring emergence of HIVDR during treatment sub-Saharan Africa could lead to the rapid emergence of resistant viral strains, spelling doom for the individual, curtailing future treatment options, and leading to transmission of resistant virus."

  • Adoption of global standard for assessing HIVDR in populations on treatment needed

  • Lack of standardized methodologies make comparison of data difficult and make public health recommendations challenging


Hivdr testing realities in rls
HIVDR testing realities in RLS sub-Saharan Africa could lead to the rapid emergence of resistant viral strains, spelling doom for the individual, curtailing future treatment options, and leading to transmission of resistant virus."

  • HIVDR testing is not routinely available in most resource limited settings for individual patient management

  • HIVDR testing is expensive and complex

  • Little room change in regimen based on genotyping results


Hivdr issues
HIVDR Issues sub-Saharan Africa could lead to the rapid emergence of resistant viral strains, spelling doom for the individual, curtailing future treatment options, and leading to transmission of resistant virus."

  • Lack of availability of second and salvage regimens

  • Second line therapy associated with greater morbidity and mortality1

  • Technology gaps

    • Low cost HIVDR testing

    • Point of care assays

    • Point mutations assays for population screening

    • New specimen technologies

1Hosseinipour M et al. HIV Med 2010


What can we do
What can we do? sub-Saharan Africa could lead to the rapid emergence of resistant viral strains, spelling doom for the individual, curtailing future treatment options, and leading to transmission of resistant virus."


What we must do

Use available resources wisely sub-Saharan Africa could lead to the rapid emergence of resistant viral strains, spelling doom for the individual, curtailing future treatment options, and leading to transmission of resistant virus."

Health systems strengthening and integration

Monitor patient management and ART programme performance

Follow standardized prescribing practices

Minimize lost to follow-up

Prevent drug stock-outs

Support patient adherence

Use quality assured drugs

What we must do!


Acknowledgments

WHO HIV DR Team sub-Saharan Africa could lead to the rapid emergence of resistant viral strains, spelling doom for the individual, curtailing future treatment options, and leading to transmission of resistant virus."

Silvia Bertagnolio

Karen Kelley

WHO HIVResNet

Data First Consulting

Neil Parkin

Tufts University School of

Medicine

John Coffin

Christine Wanke

Steven Y Hong

United States CDC

Diane Bennett

PharmAccess

TreatAsia

Bill & Melinda Gates

Foundation

Spanish Government

Acknowledgments


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