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Operation Transistor. Matthew Ladew Philip Hart Jenniffer Estrada. Stage 1 Amplifier. Pmos transistors MP1 and MP2 ensure identical biasing drain currents for MND1 and MND2 Active load- behaving as a  current-stable nonlinear resistor Act similarly to a current mirror

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Operation transistor

Operation Transistor

Matthew Ladew

Philip Hart

Jenniffer Estrada

Stage 1 amplifier
Stage 1 Amplifier

  • Pmos transistors MP1 and MP2 ensure identical biasing drain currents for MND1 and MND2

    • Active load- behaving as a current-stable nonlinear resistor

    • Act similarly to a current mirror

  • Nmos transistors MND1 and MND2 act as differential pair

    • Common mode and differential mode can be considered separately using superposition

    • Differential gain is given by:

  • Current Source

    • Uses a current mirror to supply a constant dc biasing current to differential amplifier

Fig. 1: Stage one, the differential amplifier and current source

Gain of stage one: 29 V/V

Current mirror
Current Mirror

  • MN2 matches reference current provided by MN1

    • Since MN2 has the same gate-source voltage, the drain current must be identical

    • Potentiometer Rref adjusts this gate-source voltage to obtain desired reference current

    • As long as MN2 remains in saturation, drain current will be mirrored

Fig. 2. Current mirror schematic

Stage 2 amplifier
Stage 2 Amplifier

  • Pmos MP3 added in common source configuration

    • Inverting gain

    • Drain current, IDP3, determined by ratio: (W/L)P3/(W/L)P1

    • MP3 not doubled in width: only one transistor in the CD4007 chip used

  • Nmos MN3 supplies a mirrored source current

    • Drain current, IDN3, determined by (W/L)N3/(W/L)N1

  • Good match occurs when drain currents IDP3 and IDN3 are identical, which results in DC bias voltage of zero at output VO2

    • Significant mismatch between transistors MP1 and MP3 resulted in poor gain, we eventually replaced MP1 to achieve a much higher gain

Fig. 3 Two stage amplifier with second stage, common source amplifier on the right side of the schematic

Gain of stage two: -35 V/V

Stage 3 amplifier
Stage 3 Amplifier

  • Push pull structure added by MP4 and MP4

    • Adds low output impedance

  • Crossover distortion minimized by correct value of RGG

    • Potentiometers RGG and Rref were tuned in succession several times so that

      VGG > 1.1(Vtn + ⎟Vtp⎜) and VO = 0.

Fig. 4 Complete three stage amplifier, with third and final stage

Stage 3 Gain: 1800 V/V

Screenshot third stage
Screenshot- Third Stage

Without RGG

With RGG

Third stage: Yellow trace is Vo2+, Green is Vo, purple is Vo2+ - Vo; this demonstrates the effect of RGG on the crossover distortion.

Miller capacitor
Miller Capacitor

  • Miller capacitor added between outputs of first and second stages

    • Adds a pole to the bode plot to place the 3db point to a lower frequency

    • Prevented feedback oscillation

Non inverting op amp
Non-Inverting Op-Amp

  • R1 = 2Kohm

  • R2 = 200ohm

  • Vin at non-inverting input V2, R2 connected from inverting input V1 to ground

Inverting op amp
Inverting Op-Amp

  • Rf = 2Kohm

  • Ri = 200ohm

  • Non-inverting input at V2 grounded, Ri connected between inverting input V1 and Vin