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WORLD WAR II AND THE HOMEFRONT. TOTAL WAR. Total war involved an interrelationship between: 1) nation’s economy 2) technology 3) mobilization of civilian population Degrees of commitment & output = a nation’s chance for victory Aggressors have early edge b/c of prep time. Joseph Goebbels.

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total war
TOTAL WAR
  • Total war involved an interrelationship between:
  • 1) nation’s economy
  • 2) technology
  • 3) mobilization of civilian population
  • Degrees of commitment & output = a nation’s chance for victory
  • Aggressors have early edge b/c of prep time
germany
GERMANY
  • Hitler had industry concentrate on consumer goods to keep morale up
  • Goebbels mobilized press, radio & film to gain support for war
  • Early successes brought civilian confidence up
  • Doubt & fear return b/c:
  • 1) failure to knock Britain out of war
  • 2) invasion of USSR & setback at Moscow
  • 3) more wounded soldiers on streets at home
slide5

Albert Speer

Fritz Todt

germany1
GERMANY
  • 4) Stalingrad defeat
  • 5) Allied bombing raids
  • War economy leaders:
  • 1) Fritz Todt – 1940-42
  • 2) Albert Speer – 1942-45
  • 1943 – German economy on full wartime level; too late?
  • Food shortages solved by exploiting countries under their control
germany2
GERMANY
  • Shortage of men = labor problems; solved by:
  • 1) foreign slave (use of fear)
  • 2) women
  • Hitler belief for women: “children, church & kitchen,” but by 1943, women 17-45 register for compulsory labor
britain
BRITAIN
  • Pre-1940:
  • 1) wanted war w/ limited liability – naval blockade, French Army & Maginot Line
  • 2) economy dominated by consumer goods
  • 3) no stockpile of food & raw materials (phony war?)
  • Brit gov’t focused on:
  • 1) air defenses
  • 2) evacuations
britain1
BRITAIN
  • Post-1940 changes:
  • 1) formation of war cabinet
  • 2) increase of aircraft production
  • 3) all economy comes under gov’t control
  • 4) men 18-50 to armed forces or industrial service
  • 5) Women 19-45 for war work
  • 500K women in auxiliary military roles
britain2
BRITAIN
  • Reasons for “happy” workplace:
  • 1) end of unemployment
  • 2) overtime pay
  • 3) price controls
  • 4) better standard of living
  • 5) patriotism
  • Reciprocal Aid Agreement – “reverse lend-lease”; aid to US forces in Brit. = $6B
britain3
BRITAIN
  • Wartime in Brit. = shortages, rationing, long lines for few goods, air raid shelters
  • US troops in Brit. – “Americans are overpaid, oversexed, and over here”; 70K Brit. women become US war brides
  • US reply: “the British are underpaid, undersexed and under Eisenhower”
  • All political parties involved in war effort & directing country = non-partisan support
slide12
USSR
  • Major (Stalin responsible) problems:
  • 1) disregard for human life
  • 2) refusal to heed war warnings
  • 3) keeping troops close to border (POWs)
  • 4) no evacuation or surrenders allowed
  • 5) no movement of industry to interior until later; much fell to early Germ. advances
  • 6) lack of coordination b/t Stalin & war cabinet
slide13
USSR
  • Labor shortage reasons:
  • 1) many skilled workers to army
  • 2) military losses required replacements
  • 3) factory workers trapped in enemy-occupied areas
  • 4) unskilled replacement workers = less quality & efficiency
  • 5) teenage boys, 50+ men, & women fill in
  • By 1944 – women = 75% of farm workers & 60% of industry
slide14
USSR
  • 1M women in military – both combat & non-combat positions
  • Political and criminal prisoners worked as slave laborers
  • Food shortage – scorched earth policy & best land overtaken early by Germany
  • Food restricted (by rationing) to people involved in war effort
  • Stalin appeals to patriotism - Great Patriotic War – “save Holy Mother Russia”
slide15
USSR
  • Crusade vs. Germ. – fate awaiting Russians if Germany wins the war united the civilian population
  • Churches allowed to reopen – rallied citizens to war effort & rekindled religious revival
  • Stalin blames gov’t for early losses & takes credit for final victories
  • POWs (captured by Germ.) treated as traitors after returning home
japan
JAPAN
  • Propaganda glorifies early victories and censorship ignores or distorts defeats
  • Japan at a disadvantage:
  • 1) population ½ of US
  • 2) industrial potential of 1/7th of US
  • 3) US had 78 X as many raw materials
  • 4) Japan still had small plot agriculture
  • Death blows to economy – fire bombing & US sub strangulation of supply line to SE Asia
japan1
JAPAN
  • Army & Navy feud led to total lack of coordination
  • 1) individual industrial needs filled w/o consideration of war effort
  • 2) bickering over design & production of planes led to a 1943 amt. 1/5th of potential
  • 3) army controls 85% of oil supply; navy has critical shortage, while army has surplus
japan2
JAPAN
  • Labor shortage filled by students, Korean & Chinese slaves, POWs
  • Women (only job was “producing & caring for children”) finally go to work in 1943
  • Food production decline:
  • 1) women, old men, boys & girls replace draftees
  • 2) imports decline b/c sub attacks (especially rice)
  • 3) fish scarce with fishermen in service & US sub threat
slide19

Henry Kaiser

“Sir Launchalot”

slide22
USA
  • Auto plants converted to make trucks, jeeps, tanks, aircraft
  • Shipyards turn out large numbers of warships & merchant ships
  • Henry Kaiser – “Sir Launchalot” – used assembly line techniques to speed up production of Liberty ships
  • 1942 – US production = Axis production, 1943 = 1.5 X Axis, 1944 = 2 X Axis
  • Food production increases take care of US and Allied needs
slide23
USA
  • Labor shortage solutions:
  • 1) Great Migration (the 2nd) – blacks from South to North & West
  • The threat of a March on Washington addresses discrimination in defense industries
  • 2) 2M women in defense industries
  • 3) US kept skilled workers in ship production jobs
  • Paying for the war ($300B):
  • 1)increase income & war profits taxes
slide26
USA
  • 2) placed excise taxes on luxuries
  • 3) war bond drives cover 60% of costs
  • Minorities in the service:
  • 1) 2 Black infantry divisions served in Pacific & Italy
  • 2) Tuskegee Airmen in Italy
  • 3) Navajo Indians (code talkers) in Pacific
  • 4) Japanese Nisei in Italy
  • 5) women in WAC, WAVES, WAAF
names of airplanes
NAMES OF AIRPLANES

PLANES WO-TAH-DE-NE-IH AIR FORCE

DIVE BOMBER GINI CHICKEN HAWK

TORPEDO PLANE TAS-CHIZZIE SWALLOW

OBS. PLANE NE-AS-JAH OWL

FIGHTER DA-HE-TIH-HI HUMMING BIRD

BOMBER JAY-SHO BUZZARD

PATROL PLANE GA-GIH CROW

TRANSPORT ATSAH EAGLE

names of ships
NAMES OF SHIPS

SHIPS TOH-DINEH-IH SEA FORCE

BATTLESHIP LO-TSO WHALE

CARRIER TSIDI-MOFFA-YE-HI BIRD CARRIER

SUBMARINE BESH-LO IRON FISH

MINE SWEEPER CHA BEAVER

DESTROYER CA-LO SHARK

TRANSPORT DINEH-NAY-YE-HI MAN CARRIER

CRUISER LO-TSO-YAZZIE SMALL WHALE

PT BOAT TSE-E MOSQUITO

slide31
USA
  • War-related government agencies:
  • War Production Board – allocated resources & regulated production; involved in rationing
  • Office of Economic Stabilization – controlled wages, rents, prices, profits
  • Office of War Mobilization – power over entire home front
slide32
USA
  • National War Labor Board – solved labor-management problems
  • OSRD – Office of Scientific Research and Development – scientists in the war effort
  • upgrades in radar, sonar, DDT, penicillin, & atomic bomb
internment camps
INTERNMENT CAMPS
  • Executive Order 9066 – created exclusion zones on West coast
  • 120K moved to relocation camps
  • Korematsu v. US – protection against espionage more important than civil rights
  • Jan. 2, 1945 - Exclusion order rescinded; internees given $25 and train ticket home
  • JACL – gets: $25K, apology from US, funds for education foundation for J-A children
manhattan project
MANHATTAN PROJECT
  • J. Robert Oppenheimer – head of the scientists at Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • Leslie Groves – military leader in charge
  • 7/16/1945 - Trinity Test – Alamogordo, N.M.; 20 KT TNT explosion w/ plutonium
  • 2 bombs developed – 1) Uranium-235 (Hiroshima)

2) plutonium (Nagasaki)

slide39

100 ft. tower built to hold the test bomb

“The Gadget”

In position at top of the tower

slide43

Hiroshima bomb

Nagasaki bomb

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