Reminders
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Reminders. Please sign in Keep reading Vowell – due 2/18 – check website Study guide for Exam #1 – out 2/13 http://hesenhistory.wicomico.wikispaces.net /. The Last West and the New South, 1865-1900. The “New South”. Still recovering from Civil War Henry Grady Pro-industrialization

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Reminders

Reminders

  • Please sign in

  • Keep reading Vowell – due 2/18 – check website

  • Study guide for Exam #1 – out 2/13

  • http://hesenhistory.wicomico.wikispaces.net/


The last west and the new south 1865 1900

The Last West and the New South, 1865-1900


The new south

The “New South”

  • Still recovering from Civil War

  • Henry Grady

    • Pro-industrialization

    • Pro-transcontinental RR

    • Atlanta Constitution article


Reminders

  • Economic Process

    • Cities

      • Birmingham, AL

        • Major symbol of “New South”

        • Steel center

      • Richmond, VA

        • Tobacco center

      • Memphis, TN

        • Lumber capitol


Reminders

  • CHEAP LABOR!

    • Textile industry

      • Georgia, SC, and NC

      • Made more cloth and textiles than New England

      • 1865 – 12 small cotton mills

      • 1900 – 400 cotton mills

        • 100,000 workers


Reminders

  • Continued Poverty

    • Mostly agriculture

    • Poorest region in the country

    • Northern investors controlled ¾ of RRs

    • Money went to bankers and to the North – not Southerners

    • Poverty caused by:

      • Late entry into industrialization

      • Poorly educated work force


Reminders

  • Agriculture

    • Cotton prices drop drastically

    • Farmers lost lands

    • Per capita income declined

    • By 1900 – 50% of whites were tenant farmers – 75% blacks

    • George Washington Carver


Reminders

  • Farmers Unite!

    • 1890 – Farmers’ Southern Alliance

      • 1 million members

    • Colored Farmers’ Southern Alliance

      • 250,000 members

    • Both wanted political and economic reforms

    • Poor whites and black united for a common goal


Reminders

  • Segregation

    • 1877 – Federal troops exit South

    • No more protection for blacks

    • Democrats come into local power

      • White supremacy

      • Separate races

      • KKK


Reminders

  • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

  • Jim Crow Laws

    • Grandfather clause

    • Poll tax

    • Literacy tests

    • Voting numbers fall

      • Louisiana

        • 1896 – 130,334

        • 1904 – 1,342


Reminders

American social development has been continually beginning over again on the Frontier. This perennial rebirth, this fluidity of American life, this expansion westward with its new opportunities, its continuous touch with the simplicity of primitive society, furnish the forces dominating American character. The true point of view in the history of this nation is not the Atlantic coast, it is the Great West.

- Frederick Jackson Turner, 1893


Manifest destiny

Manifest Destiny

  • Louisiana Purchase (1803)

  • Lewis & Clark Expedition (1804-1806)

  • Mexican-American War (1846-1848)


The civil war

The Civil War

  • Manifest Destiny – no more

  • Concentration is on war


The west settlement of the last frontier

The West: Settlement of the Last Frontier

  • Postbellum Period

    • People begin to move West

    • Known as the “Great Desert”

    • 1900 – Heavily inhabited

      • Buffalo population is down by 95%

      • Railroads choking out Native American lands


Reminders

  • Groups of Settlers:

    • Miners

    • Cattlemen

    • Farmers

    • Miners

      • Gold Rush – 1848

      • Settled much of CA and OR

      • Colorado

        • Pike’s Peak – 1859

        • 100,000 inhabitants

      • Nevada

        • Comstock Lode (1864)


Reminders

  • Speculators

    • Placer mining

    • Deep-shaft mining

      • Investment and capital

  • Boomtowns

    • Virginia City, NV

    • San Francisco, CA

    • Sacramento, CA

    • Denver, CO


Reminders

  • Problems in CA:

    • Immigration – mostly Asian

    • Miner’s Tax

      • $20/mo

      • ALL foreign-born miners

    • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

      • Eliminated immigration from China

      • Renewed in 1892


Reminders

  • The Cattle Frontier

    • Economic opportunities

    • Railroad

      • Postwar – opened up East to the West

      • Cow Towns

        • Abilene, TX

        • Dodge City, KS

        • Chicago, IL

        • “Long-Drive”

          • Chisholm Trail

          • Goodnight Loving Trail


Reminders

  • Conditions:

    • Workers

      • Mexican immigrants/blacks (exodusters)

      • $1.00/day

    • Farming/grazing methods

      • 1880s – overgrazing

      • 1885-1886 – massive drought

        • Killed 90% of cattle on Plains

      • Privatization of property

        • Joseph Glidden (1874)


Reminders1

Reminders

  • Please sign in on the roster

    • Pick up:

      • Vowell assignment

      • Study Guide #1

  • Finish up with Vowell – DUE 2/18

    • Bring hard copy to class

    • NO LATE PAPERS

  • Exam #1 – 2/25


Reminders

  • The Farming Frontier

    • Homestead Act of 1862

      • 160 acres

      • 500,000 moved west

      • 2.5 million had to buy land from RRs

      • Problems:

        • No building materials

        • Extreme hot and cold

        • No water

      • Solutions:

        • Sodbusters – sod bricks

        • “Dry farming”

          • Russian Wheat


Reminders

“Hurrah for Greer County! The land of the free,

The land of the bedbug, grasshopper, and flea;

I’ll sing of its praises, I’ll tell of its fame;

While starving to death on my government claim.”


Searching for an indian policy

Searching for an Indian Policy

  • Antebellum: “one big reservation”

  • “Indian Country” –government nomenclature

  • 1834 – Indian Intercourse Act

    • Whites must have a “license” to move to the West

    • Changes in 1848


Native americans

Native Americans

  • Removal of Native Americans

    • 65% live on Great Plains

    • Tribes:

      • Sioux

      • Blackfoot

      • Cheyenne

      • Crow

      • Comanche

  • Conflicts with U.S. Govt.


Reminders

  • Reservation Policy

    • Used to open terrain

    • Settlers moved West

    • Transcontinental RR being built

      • Native American philosophies:

        • Family

        • NO Private Property

    • U.S. government attitude towards indigenous:

      • Reservations!

      • Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851/1868)


Reminders

  • Indian Wars

    • November 1864 – Massacre at Sand Creek

      • John Chivington

      • “Nits make lice”

    • 1867 – Great Sioux War

      • 7th Cavalry loses big!

      • Battle of Little Bighorn

        • Col. George A. Custer

        • Custer’s Last Stand


Reminders

  • “Assimilationists” Respond

    • Dawes Act (1887)

      • Wanted Native Americans to assimilate

      • Give up Ghost Dance

      • Become “civilized”

      • U.S. Govt. divides up tribal lands

      • 47 million acres

      • FAILURE


Carlisle school 1901

Carlisle School, 1901


Reminders

  • Battle of Wounded Knee

    • December 28, 1890

    • Wounded Knee Creek, SD

    • 7th Cavalry – rounds up 350 starving Sioux

    • Demand Sioux to give up weapons

    • Last of the Indian Wars


Reminders

  • Frederick Jackson Turner

    • “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893)

    • Argument:

      • Frontier played a significant role in forming American identity

      • Individualism and ruggedness

      • West was a safety valve for East

      • By 1890 – West was closed


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