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Types of Domestic Violence Research Evidence. Michael P. Johnson, Ph.D. Sociology, Women\'s Studies, and African & African American Studies Penn State. Photos from Donna Ferrato, Living with the Enemy. New York: Aperture, 1991. New Directions Program Catholic Family Service Ottawa

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types of domestic violence research evidence

Types of Domestic ViolenceResearch Evidence

Michael P. Johnson, Ph.D.

Sociology, Women\'s Studies, and

African & African American Studies

Penn State

Photos from Donna Ferrato, Living with the Enemy. New York: Aperture, 1991

New Directions Program

Catholic Family Service Ottawa

February 24, 2010

McKeesport, PA

slide2
The Continuing Gender Debate
    • Anti-feminist politics and conflicting data
    • Explaining the ostensible contradictions
  • A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence
    • The three major types (plus one or two)
    • Gender differences and sampling biases
  • Dramatic Differences Among the Types
    • Violence severity, frequency, mutuality, and escalation
    • Health consequences
    • Relationship consequences
    • Miscellaneous other major differences
  • Preview of Policy Implications

Screening/triage, Primary prevention/education, Intervention with perpetrators, Intervention for survivors, Custody and access issues

the anti feminist backlash
The Anti-feminist Backlash
  • Globe and Mail July 27, 2002 (Web site)
    • Men as likely to suffer spousal abuse, Statscan says.
  • Baltimore Sun July 16, 2009
    • McNair tragedy underscores fact that men are often victimized by wives
  • Pittsburgh Post Gazette July 26, 2009
    • Feminist ideologues ignore research that shows domestic violence is just as often started by women as by men
  • The Men’s Project. February 2009. Submission to Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General
    • …the Ontario Government may be in violation of their obligations… [because] the existing network of shelters for victims of family violence exclude men….
a small theory that reconciles the contradiction
A Small TheorythatReconciles the Contradiction
  • There is more than one type of partner violence
  • The different types are differently gendered
  • Both major sampling plans are biased
    • General survey studies are biased toward situationally-provoked violence, which women are as likely to perpetrate as are men
    • Agency studies are biased toward coercive controlling violence, perpetrated almost entirely by men
slide7

Intimate Terrorism

Coercive Control

Violent Resistance

Resisting the Intimate Terrorist

Situational Couple Violence

Situationally-provoked Violence

Separation-instigated Violence

No History of Violence or Control

Mutual Violent Control

Two Intimate Terrorists

slide8

Domestic Violence/Intimate Terrorism

Two major subtypes: (a) Emotionally dependent; (b) Antisocial

coercive control scale
Coercive Control Scale

Thinking about your husband [yourself], would you say he [you]…

  • is jealous or possessive?
  • tries to provoke arguments?
  • tries to limit your contact with family and friends?
  • insists on knowing who you are with at all times?
  • calls you names or puts you down in front of others?
  • makes you feel inadequate?
  • shouts or swears at you?
  • frightens you?
  • prevents you from knowing about or having access to the family income even when you ask?

*These are items from the 1995 National Violence Against Women Survey (Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998). They should be asked regarding both partner and self (adapted as appropriate).

gender symmetry asymmetry by type of violence 1970s pittsburgh violent husbands and wives
Gender Symmetry/Asymmetryby Type of Violence(1970s Pittsburgh: Violent husbands and wives)
slide12

Pittsburgh data

Mixed sample

Intimate Terrorism

76% severe

75% escalated

1/25 couples

29% mutual

General Motive: To control the relationship

Situational Couple Violence

28% severe

28% escalated

1/8 couples

69% mutual

Situational Motive: To win, get attention, get even, etc .

slide13

British data

Mixed sample

Intimate Terrorism

43% severe

78% escalated

15% mutual

General Motive: To control the relationship

Situational Couple Violence

13% severe

20% escalated

87% mutual

Situational Motive: To win, get attention, get even, etc

slide14

Canadian GSS 1999

Previous partner

Intimate Terrorism

41% frequent violence

56% feared for life

General Motive: To control the relationship

Situational Couple Violence

8% frequent violence

17% feared for life

Situational Motive: To win, get attention, get even, etc

slide15

Canadian GSS 2004

Previous/current partner

Intimate Terrorism

57% frequent violence

60% feared for life

General Motive: To control the relationship

Situational Couple Violence

8% frequent violence

9% feared for life

Situational Motive: To win, get attention, get even, etc

need to re assess everything various studies
Need to Re-assess EverythingVarious Studies
  • Intergenerational “transmission”
    • SCV d = .11; IT d = .35
    • SCV odds ratio = 2.40; IT odds ratio = 7.51
  • Marriage
    • SCV b = -.62; IT b = .58
  • Gender traditionalism or hostility toward women
    • Traditionalism: SCV d = -.14; IT d = .80
    • Hostility: non-viol., SCV, IT, IT = 154, 153, 135, 131
  • Gender, frequency, severity, escalation, mutuality, impact on victim, impact on children, etc.
slide19
Preview of Policy Implications
    • Screening/triage
    • Primary prevention/education
    • Intervention with perpetrators
    • Intervention for survivors
    • Custody and access issues
we make big mistakes if we don t make big distinctions
We make big mistakes if we don’t make big distinctions.

Different types of partner violence have…

  • Different causes
  • Different developmental trajectories
  • Different effects
  • Different successful intervention strategies
support your local women s shelter
Support Your Local Women’s Shelter

Safety

Support

Information

Advocacy

Photos from Donna Ferrato, Living with the Enemy. New York: Aperture, 1991

Philadelphia, PA shelter

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