Collaboration with Animal Health Organizations and International Reporting Requirements
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Collaboration with Animal Health Organizations and International Reporting Requirements. Theory, Practice, and Players. Last updated: 26 February 2009. Learning Objectives. Discuss the relevant animal organizations

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Collaboration with animal health organizations and international reporting requirements

Collaboration with Animal Health Organizations and International Reporting Requirements

Theory, Practice, and Players

Last updated: 26 February 2009


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Discuss the relevant animal organizations

  • Describe the difference in roles and responsibilities of the animal health sector vs. the human health sector

  • List the data required for notification

  • Describe the information flow of disease occurrence


Why do you need to know about the animal health organisations

Why do you need to know about the animal health organisations?

  • Currently, avian influenza (AI) is a disease of animals

  • Animal healthorganizations are responsible for collecting epidemiological data on AI outbreaks in animals and may be the first to know about animal AI outbreaks in a country

    • This knowledge could help manage risk of outbreaks in humans

    • Data should be shared among agencies to increase effectiveness and efficiency


Why do you need to know about the animal health organisations 2

Why do you need to know about the animal health organisations (2)?

  • Coordinating disease awareness messages among all responsible agencies increases credibility and public health impact

  • Countries should comply with specific international animal health guidelines just as they should comply with international public health guidelines

    • Decision makers have to consider and balance these guidelines


What are the relevant organizations

What are the relevant organizations?

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, www.fao.org)

  • mandate to improve food availability and nutrition by providing knowledge and assistance

  • is an UN organization (established 1945)

  • International standard setting agency (with WHO) for food safety, through the'Codex Alimentarius'

    The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE, www.oie.int)

  • responsible for collecting/disseminating animal disease information

  • OIE is not an UN organization (established 1924)

  • International standard setting agency for animal health and zoonosis , through the 'OIE Code' and 'OIE Manual'


What are the relevant organizations 2

What are the relevant organizations (2)?

  • Both FAO and OIE are comprised of 'member countries'

  • FAO and OIE each have country and/or regional offices and global networks of collaborating and reference centers

  • The OIE interacts with each member country through the country's National Veterinary Authority

    • Delegate is the Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) or equivalent

    • The National Veterinary Authority generally is administered by the Ministry of Agriculture or equivalent


What are some fao oie activities for ai

What are some FAO/OIE activities for AI?

  • Providing animal-related training and technical expertise in AI-affected and AI-risk countries, including:

    • Laboratory

    • Surveillance

    • Contingency planning

    • Outbreak/epidemiological investigations

    • Disease communication

  • Providing technical and public awareness information and materials

    • Via websites and publications

  • WHO collaborates with FAO/OIE on many of these activities

Particularly through the OFFLU network


The oie also

The OIE also…

  • Provides (in the OIE Code) :

    • The international standard for determining the animal and zoonotic disease status of a country

    • Recommendations for surveillance, evaluation of veterinary services, risk assessment, etc.

    • Minimum sanitary requirements for trade in animals and animal products

  • Provides (in the OIE Manual) :

    • Standards for laboratory tests for specific diseases

    • Standards for vaccine production

  • Both the Code and the Manual are updated annually (as needed) by consensus of the OIE members


The oie also 2

The OIE also… (2)

  • Develops and updates the official list of those animal/zoonotic diseases with the most impact on animal heath, public heath, and/or trade

    • "notifiable' or 'listed' diseases

  • Publishes information on current outbreaks of these notifiable diseases throughout the world


General oie notification requirement

General OIE Notification requirement

  • The Veterinary Authority of an OIE Member country is required to notify the OIE within 24 hours of :

    • A first (or re-occurrence after declaration of freedom) of a listed disease

    • A first occurrence of a new strain of a listed disease pathogen

    • A sudden/unexpected increase in a listed disease(distribution, incidence, morbidity or mortality)

    • Occurrence of an emerging disease with significant morbidity or mortality, or zoonotic potential

    • Evidence of change in the epidemiology (host range, pathogenicity, strain) of a listed disease, especially if there is a zoonotic impact


When is ai notifiable to the oie

When is AI notifiable to the OIE ?

Virus is H5 or H7 subtype (low pathogenic or highly pathogenic)

or

Virus is not H5 or H7, but has an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) > 1.2 (or at least 75% mortality).

  • These criteria always apply to poultry

  • For wild birds:

    • All HPAI must also be notified

    • Notification of LPAI (including H5 or H7) is NOT REQUIRED

      • Countries may also voluntarily report LPAI cases in wild birds


What is the oie definition of poultry

What is the OIE definition of 'poultry'?

  • "All domesticated birds, including backyard poultry, used for the production of meat or eggs for consumption, for the production of other commercial products, for restocking supplies of game, or for breeding these categories of birds, as well as fighting cocks used for any purpose’.

  • 'therefore Birds that are kept in captivity for any reason other than those listed above, including those that are kept for shows, races, exhibitions, competitions or for breeding or selling these categories of birds as well as pet birds, are NOT considered to be poultry.


What data are required at initial notification

What data are required at initial notification?

  • Type of event

  • Dates: Report date, first confirmation of event, start of the event

  • Nature of diagnosis: Suspicion/clinical/laboratory/PM

  • Laboratories where tests performed and tests used

  • Precise identification of agent: Agent, serotype

  • Specific location: Administrative division, name of location, geo-coordinates

  • Epidemiological unit: Farm, village

  • Description of event, including species and populations affected


What data are required at notification 2

What data are required at notification (2)?

  • Number of animals in each different categories: susceptible/cases/deaths/destroyed/slaughtered

  • Source of outbreaks: Known or suspected

  • Control measures: Undertaken and to be undertaken (e.g. culling, quarantine measures, movement control, vector control, cleaning/disinfection)

  • Vaccination: Status (i.e. is vaccination allowed/ prohibited in country), and details if vaccination performed

  • Other details/comments


Oie notification form

OIE notification form

  • The notification form is completed and submitted to the OIE by the Chief Veterinary Officer at the National Veterinary Authority

  • On-line notification through the 'World Animal Health Information System' (WAHIS) is also possible

    • secure access restricted to national veterinary authorities


Oie notification

OIE Notification

  • Follow-up reports are required (and same data collected)

    • Weekly as situation progresses/evolves, through eradication or establishment of endemicity, up through a final report

  • These notifications and updates (except annual updates) are immediately published as alerts on the OIE website

  • All official information exchange occurs between the OIE and the National Veterinary Authority

  • Additional reports to OIE include

    • Every 6 months (& monthly breakdown) with absence/presence, control, prophylaxis, & preventative measures for listed diseases

    • Annual report with any further data, as well as data on non-listed diseases, animal populations, and veterinary infrastructure.


Disease occurrence information flow

Disease occurrence: Information flow

Infected bird

community

Local veterinary authority

Notification requires multilevel communication and transparency

Farmer/ veterinarian

National veterinary authority

OIE

FAO

Official

Notification

International Community


Disease occurrence information flow 2

Disease occurrence: Information flow (2)

Infected bird

community

  • Constraints on transparency and information flow

  • 1. Non-reporting by animal owners/ farmers/ veterinarians

    • Economic repercussions/no compensation

    • Social/political repercussions

    • Lack of knowledge of disease presentation

    • Household poultry owners may have limited interaction with animal health system

Local veterinary authority

Farmer/ veterinarian

National veterinary authority

OIE

FAO

Official

Notification

International Community


Disease occurrence information flow 3

Disease occurrence: Information flow (3)

Infected bird

community

  • Constraints on transparency and information flow

  • 2. Infrastructural constraints

    • Lack of laboratory support for disease confirmation

    • Communication blocks from remote villages

Local veterinary authority

Farmer/ veterinarian

National veterinary authority

OIE

FAO

Official

Notification

International Community


Disease occurrence information flow 4

Disease occurrence: Information flow (4)

Infected bird

community

Constraints on transparency and information flow

3. Political constraints

Local veterinary authority

Farmer/ veterinarian

National veterinary authority

OIE

FAO

Official

Notification

International Community


Potential consequences of a lack of transparency

Potential consequences of a lack of transparency

  • Non-containment/spread of disease outbreaks in animals and humans

    • Disease control costs increase substantially with greater initial spread

  • Breach of international obligations (e.g. World Trade Organisation)

  • Risk to trading partners importing risk commodities

    • regional/global spread

  • Decreased scientific/social reputation among trading partners and within international community


Optimisation of information flow

Optimisation of information flow

Infected bird

Infected human

community

Local veterinary authority

Local public health institution

Farmer/ veterinarian

National public health authority

National veterinary authority

OIE

WHO

FAO

Official

Notification

International Community


Optimisation requires

Optimisation requires:

  • Political will at all levels

    • Including financial support and legislative backing

  • Education and training at all levels

  • Communication and information sharing (transparency) between Public Health and Animal Health authorities at every level

    • e.g. field staff, laboratories, decision makers, planners/ logisticians

  • Communication with other authorities

    • e.g. finance, military, food safety, commerce, industry


Optimisation requires 2

Optimisation requires (2):

  • Communication with other entities

    • e.g. NGOs, Industry

  • Communication with international community

    • Both public health and animal health authorities

    • Fulfilling international obligations

  • Motivation to report by community and farmers

    • Disease awareness

    • Compensation

  • Coordination of communications/media


Optimisation of information flow1

Optimisation of information flow

Increased transparency, communication, and interaction between all the players results in a positive feed back cycle, ultimately improving both public health and animal health nationally, and on a global level


Developed by

Developed by

The Global Influenza Programme of the World Health Organization with the assistance of:

  • The Department of Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response

  • WHO/SDE/Department of Food Safety, Zoonoses, and Foodborne Diseases

  • World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

  • Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)


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