Fall 2004 Physics 3 TuTh Section. Claudio Campagnari Lecture 9: 21 Oct. 2004 Web page: http://hep.ucsb.edu/people/claudio/ph304/. Last time: Gauss's Law. To formulate Gauss's law, introduced a few new concepts Vector Area Electric Field Flux Let's review them. Vector Area.
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Claudio Campagnari
Lecture 9: 21 Oct. 2004
Web page: http://hep.ucsb.edu/people/claudio/ph304/
This is called a surface integral
Electric Field FluxFlux always defined
with respect to some area
(flux through area)
Note: means integral over a closed surface surface. Then
always points outward
Qenclosed = q1 + q2 + q3 + q4
q2
q1
q3
q4
q5
E does not depend
on q5 (outside surface)
Gauss's LawInsulating sphere of radius R charge density .
The sphere has a hole at radius b of radius a.
Find the E field in the insulator and in the hole.
P surface. Then
Careful: here is not a constant vector. We want the field at
some point P. The vector is the vector that tells us where
this point P actually is!
Use result of "example 2" from last lecture for field of 1:
Here I wrote it as a vector equation. The rvector points from
the center of the big sphere to the point at which we want E.
Recast this using = (Q/V) and V = 4R3/3
Now the field due to the fictitious surface. Then
negative charge density in the hole.
Call this field E2.
First, look outside the hole.
Draw imaginary (gaussian) sphere
Radius of gaussian sphere surface. Then
Want E2, electric field of sphere of radius a, charge density
Using previous result, outside sphere radius a, we can
pretend that all the charge is at the center
On the other hand, inside the sphere of radius a: surface. Then
or
outside the hole
inside the hole
Outside the hole: surface. Then
Now it is simply a matter to adding the two fields:
Inside the hole:
Uniform!
A closed surface surface. Then
somewhere
inside the conductor
Some conductor
Charges in a conductor (cont.) E is zero for any closed surface (inside conductor)
No net charge anywhere inside a conductor!!!
The excess charge on a conductor in an
electrostatic situation is always on the surface
Solid charged conductor:
all the excess charge (+Q) is on the surface
Now suppose we have a cavity inside:
Now suppose we place a charge inside the cavity:
(we say that charge has been induced on the surface)
Irregularly shaped conductor surface. Then




This is the principle behind the lightning rod.
in = chargeunitlength on inside of cylinder
out = chargeunitlength on outside of cylinder
in + out = 2
surface. Thenin + out = 2
out
in
Top View:
Gaussian surface
Choose a gaussian cylindrical surface with same axis but
with radius in between the inner and outer radius.
But in + out = 2
out = 3
surface. Then
out
in
Now want the field a distance r from the axis (outside cylinder)in = 
out = 3
By symmetry, electric field can only point radially.
Draw Gaussian cylindrical surface of radius r
r
E = E(r)C d
where C = circumference cylinder
d = length of cylinder
But C = 2r
E = 2 E(r)dr
Gauss's Law: E = Qenclosed/0
E = ( + in + out)d/0
E = 3d/0
Directed outward if >0
Directed inward if <0
Example Problem surface. Then
The electric field on the surface of an irregularly shaped conductor
varies between 56 kN/C and 28 kN/C. Calculate the local surface
charge density at the point on the surface where the radius of curvature
is maximum or minimum
Maximum electric field when charge density is highest.
This happens when the surface has sharp edges, i.e.,
when the radius of curvature is minimum.
Minimum electric field when charge density is lowest.
This happens when the surface is flattest, i.e., when
the radius of curvature is maximum.
A
B
outside the conductor
Let S = area of vertical surfaces if gaussian boxes
A =  ES (field goes into the box)
B = + ES (field goes out of the box)
surface. Then2
A
1
B
A = ES and B=+ES
The charge enclosed in box A is S1
The charge enclosed in box B is S2
Then, by Gauss's Law:
1 =  0 E =  8.85 1012 x 80,000 C/m2 =  7.1 107 C/m2
2 = 1 = + 7.1 107 C/m2
Each surface has area (50 cm)2 = 0.25 m2
each surface has charge 0.25 x 7.1 107 C = 1.8 107 C
Inner shell: charge +2 surface. Thenq
Outer shell: charge +4q
Want field for b<r<c and
r>d
Small shell: charge +2 surface. Thenq
Large shell: charge +4q
Outer surface of small shell (r=b)
Inner surface of large shell (r=c)
Outer surface of large shell (r=d)