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Centripetal Force - Swinging Ball

Any body rotating about a fixed point will experience a centripetal (center seeking) acceleration.

This acceleration is always directed inwards towards the center of the circle.

If asked to find the centripetal force, then simply multiply the acceleration by the mass.

When viewing “Swinging Ball” problems, note that the body has a force (tension, normal,…) acting on it that is pulling the body towards the center of the circleat all times.

You are looking down on a flail spinning in a horizontal circle.

The chain breaks on the flail.

Which flail (red, blue, or green) travels in the path that the flail would follow after the chain broke?

Centripetal Force - Swinging Ball

We will derive the equations relating the tensions in the top and bottom of a vertically swinging ball to the velocities of the ball at the top and bottom of its swing.

Notice that the tension is pulling the ball towards the center of rotation at all times.

Which tension would you expect to be the largest: top or bottom? Why?

Derive the tension for both cases

W

a

T

T

a

W

Centripetal Force – Ferris Wheel

As the man riding the Ferris wheel is moving in a circle, he experiences a centripetal force (red) at all points as shown.

The seat is also exerting an upward normal force on him (blue).

Derive an expression for the weight of the boy at the top and bottom of the ride.

Circular Motion and Force

Synchronized jet fighters perform a perfect vertical circular loop maneuver.

What is the apparent weight of the pilot at the top and bottom of the loop?

Circular Motion and Force

A test dummy (m = 62.5 kg) rides freely in a high-speed roller coaster with a radius of curvature of r = 52.00 m.

What type of a problem is this one?

A Ferris wheel problem.

If the coaster was moving at vT = 18.00 m/s at the top of the coaster, then what is the apparent weight of the test dummy at this point?

What is the maximum safe speed of the roller coaster?

RUN

Circular Motion and Force

An airplane, whose engine failed, was gliding to the ground.

Once the engine restarted, the pilot “pulled up” in order to keep the plane from crashing into the ground.

The radius of curvature of the pull up is 175.0 m, and the plane’s speed at the lowest point of this curve is 78.0 m/s.

What is the apparent weight of the 58.2 kg pilot at this lowest point in flight?

Friction Types for Rolling and Skidding Tires

What type of friction acts between the road and a tire that is rolling without skidding?

What type of friction acts between the road and a tire that is skidding?

Watch the red dot on the tire below as it rolls and then slides.

Physics GT Tires

The Fast Ones

Skidding and Curves

When an ATV safely negotiates a curve, the centripetal acceleration produced by the inward acting static friction is able to accelerate (change the direction of) the ATV.

The tracks left behind by this ATV would look like the ones to the right.

When an ATV goes around the curve at too high a speed, the tires begin to skid.

The tracks left behind by this ATV would look like the ones to the right.

88

88

Negotiating Curves

Watch the animation to the right and explain what has happened.

What force acted on the ATV that prevented it from slipping off the road during the first lap and in which direction was it acting?

The static friction directed inwards towards the center of curvature.

What forces were acting on the ATV when it slipped off the road?

88

88

88

Physics GT Tires

The Fast Ones

Physics GT Tires

The Fast Ones

Physics GT Tires

The Fast Ones

Physics GT Tires

The Fast Ones

Physics GT Tires

The Fast Ones

Physics GT Tires

The Fast Ones

Physics GT Tires

The Fast Ones

The Fast Ones

The Fast Ones

Physics GT Tires

Physics GT Tires

Physics GT Tires

The Fast Ones

The Fast Ones

Physics GT Tires

The Fast Ones

Physics GT Tires

The Fast Ones

Physics GT Tires

Physics GT Tires

The Fast Ones

The Fast Ones

Physics GT Tires

The Fast Ones

Physics GT Tires

The Fast Ones

Physics GT Tires

The Fast Ones

Physics GT Tires

Negotiating Curves - Unbanked

When a car negotiates an unbanked curve, the only force causing the centripetal acceleration is the static friction acting inwards along the radius of curvature.

This static friction accelerates the car and causes it to turn.

Derive an expression for the maximum speed the ATV can have to safely negotiate a curve of radius r when the coefficient of static friction between the tires and the road is s.

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