Psychosociocultural Factors that Influence Chinese American College Students Alcohol Consumption

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Chinese Americans are the largest Asian American sub group in the United States Alcohol consumption among Asian American college students were much higher than expected and exceed the national sample when compared to other groups (So

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Psychosociocultural Factors that Influence Chinese American College Students Alcohol Consumption

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1. Psychosociocultural Factors that Influence Chinese American College Students' Alcohol Consumption Rosa Tu Yong Park (Graduate Advisor) Dr. Jeanett Castellanos (Faculty Advisor) School of Social Sciences University of California, Irvine

2. Chinese Americans are the largest Asian American sub group in the United States Alcohol consumption among Asian American college students were much higher than expected and exceed the national sample when compared to other groups (So & Wong, 2006) Asian Americans are the least likely to enroll in alcohol treatment centers Samhsa (2005) http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nsduh/2k5nsduh/2k5results.htm#Ch3 - Lack of literature that examines alcohol consumption patterns within specific Asian American sub ethnic groups Chinese Americans have higher depression rates than other races [NEED CITATION] (O’Hare, 1995) (DOESN’T NECESSARILY MEAN THAT THERE ISN’T A PROBLEM) As you can see from the graph, heavy alcohol use and binge use is the lowest compared to other groups. This doesn’t necessarily mean that there is not a problem. Many factors could be covering up the - Lack of literature that examines alcohol consumption patterns within specific Asian American sub ethnic groups Chinese Americans have higher depression rates than other races [NEED CITATION] (O’Hare, 1995) (DOESN’T NECESSARILY MEAN THAT THERE ISN’T A PROBLEM) As you can see from the graph, heavy alcohol use and binge use is the lowest compared to other groups. This doesn’t necessarily mean that there is not a problem. Many factors could be covering up the

3. The focus of this study examines alcohol consumption patterns among Chinese American college students at a four year institution using the psychosociocultural framework Operationalization Psychological Depression Tension Reduction Collective Self Esteem Social Model Minority Stereotype Peer Pressure Cultural Cultural congruity University Perception Define terms ? explain verbally Example) Collective Self Esteem: Measures how an individual feels within his/her own group In the Asian American culture, emphasis is placed on maintaining face of the family, not focused on individualDefine terms ? explain verbally Example) Collective Self Esteem: Measures how an individual feels within his/her own group In the Asian American culture, emphasis is placed on maintaining face of the family, not focused on individual

4. - The Psychosociocultural perspective combines psychological, social and cultural factors to explain what influences Chinese Americans alcohol consumption Framework argues that although factors (P,S,C) can be identified individually they are all interdependent - The Psychosociocultural perspective combines psychological, social and cultural factors to explain what influences Chinese Americans alcohol consumption Framework argues that although factors (P,S,C) can be identified individually they are all interdependent

5. Depression To manage with struggling pressures if children do not achieve academically in their educational endeavors they may turn to alcohol (Bhattacharya, 1998) Depression was a probable component to predicting an individuals’ alcohol consumption (Otsuki, 2003) Chinese Americans face unique stressors such as immigration and acculturative stress, racism, and family shame Collective self-esteem (Yeh and Huang, 1996) “The need for positive collective self-esteem is…considered a fundamental human motivation and it is satisfied by relatively positive evaluation of one’s group” (Zhang, 2005) Alcohol is a tension reducer - Maintaining a good education is highly regarded in the Asian American culture, therefore, parents impel a great amount of pressure onto their children because it is expected that their children perform well in school Asians cannot bring shame to the family. If there is problem, such as alcoholism, an individual cannot seek the needed counseling or treatments, otherwise this could potentially bring much shame to the family. The family units needs are placed higher than the needs of the individual which could be a reason to why so few Asian American enroll themselves into treatment centers Measures how an individual feels within his/her own group (FOR EXAMPLE: you won’t be as proud to be an Asian if there’s a disconnect) In the Asian American culture, emphasis is placed on maintaining face of the family, not focused on the individual, therefore the more positive the Chinese American group looks at the individual, the more positive the individual will feel. In this case, if this study, the need for the individual to feel accepted in the group hinders the individual from bringing shame to the group, therefore problems involving alcoholism may be hidden from the public.- Maintaining a good education is highly regarded in the Asian American culture, therefore, parents impel a great amount of pressure onto their children because it is expected that their children perform well in school Asians cannot bring shame to the family. If there is problem, such as alcoholism, an individual cannot seek the needed counseling or treatments, otherwise this could potentially bring much shame to the family. The family units needs are placed higher than the needs of the individual which could be a reason to why so few Asian American enroll themselves into treatment centers Measures how an individual feels within his/her own group (FOR EXAMPLE: you won’t be as proud to be an Asian if there’s a disconnect) In the Asian American culture, emphasis is placed on maintaining face of the family, not focused on the individual, therefore the more positive the Chinese American group looks at the individual, the more positive the individual will feel. In this case, if this study, the need for the individual to feel accepted in the group hinders the individual from bringing shame to the group, therefore problems involving alcoholism may be hidden from the public.

6. Model Minority Stereotype (Crystal, 1988) Perceived as having few mental health problems Stereotypes: Described as diligent, intelligent, immune from social and psychological problems Peer Pressure Adolescents are more vulnerable to abuse substances such as alcohol (Chung, 2002) Viewed as an exemplary group of honest and hardworking citizens with low rates of juvenile delinquency and divorce. Perceived of having few mental health problems, and live in homogeneous communities composed of stable, close-knit families with little need of outside social services. They achieve educational, economic, and social mobility. - Stereotypes: law abiding, industrious, quiet and shy, frugal, and willing to sacrifice the present for the future, and - Due to this stereotype, alcohol related problems are covered up and unrealistic academic pressures are placed on students - Peer pressure: Adolescence is a transitional period. Students have unique pressures and are easily influenced by their social networks, especially friends, who are telling them to drink alcohol.Viewed as an exemplary group of honest and hardworking citizens with low rates of juvenile delinquency and divorce. Perceived of having few mental health problems, and live in homogeneous communities composed of stable, close-knit families with little need of outside social services. They achieve educational, economic, and social mobility. - Stereotypes: law abiding, industrious, quiet and shy, frugal, and willing to sacrifice the present for the future, and - Due to this stereotype, alcohol related problems are covered up and unrealistic academic pressures are placed on students - Peer pressure: Adolescence is a transitional period. Students have unique pressures and are easily influenced by their social networks, especially friends, who are telling them to drink alcohol.

7. At the university level, perceptions of the ability of culturally “fitting in” may affect racial/ethnic students academic endeavors (Cervantes, 1988; Fiske, 1988) Perception of the university environment If the university environment is perceived as being a friendly environment, a student has the ability to utilize on campus resources to find different ways of coping Student may resort to drinking if they are unable to find appropriate resources to reduce stress Provide examples of art and literature that are Cultural Congruity (Gloria & Robinson Kurpius, 1996) If it is difficult to fit in and a student does not feel connected to his/her environment due to his/her culture, cultural incongruity may occur FOR EXAMPLE) If a student uses alcohol as a form of social interaction and the social environment does not allow this, there may be a disconnect Provide examples of art and literature that are Cultural Congruity (Gloria & Robinson Kurpius, 1996) If it is difficult to fit in and a student does not feel connected to his/her environment due to his/her culture, cultural incongruity may occur FOR EXAMPLE) If a student uses alcohol as a form of social interaction and the social environment does not allow this, there may be a disconnect

8. What are the alcohol consumption patterns among Chinese American college students? What are the differences in alcohol consumption by gender among Chinese American college students? To what extent do the psychological, social, cultural factors affect alcohol consumption among Chinese American college students? What are the interrelations between the study’s variables and criterion? H1: Chinese American students will be found to be at-risk for problematic alcohol consumption behaviors. H2: Chinese American male students will consume more alcohol than their female counterparts. H3: Each of the psychosocialcultural variables will significantly affect alcohol consumption. Among the three clusters, the psychological constructs will be the strongest predictor for alcohol consumption patterns. H4: ?????????????????????????????? H1: Chinese American students will be found to be at-risk for problematic alcohol consumption behaviors. H2: Chinese American male students will consume more alcohol than their female counterparts. H3: Each of the psychosocialcultural variables will significantly affect alcohol consumption. Among the three clusters, the psychological constructs will be the strongest predictor for alcohol consumption patterns. H4: ??????????????????????????????

10. Definition: Consumption of alcohol is defined as the number of drinks (a drink is a bottle of beer, a glass of wine, a wine cooler, a shot glass of liquor, or a mixed drink) an individual uses. Criterion Variable: The CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey Created a composite alcohol consumption score by taking the average of the standardized alcohol consumption questions: Five or more drinks in one sitting Average # of drinks How often have you used alcohol How many days did you have alcohol

11. Procedures: Institutional Review Board approval secured Snowballing effect Participants: 118 distributed 100 completed Response rate: 85% Average age: 19.70, Range: 18-25 years Gender: Male: 50 Female: 50 Generation: First generation: 18 Second generation: 71 Third generation: 6 Fourth generation: 2 Fifth generation: 1 Other: 2

12. The questionnaire consists of a demographic sheet and eight self-report instruments. The Demographic sheet assesses such items as gender, age, generation status, and parental educational level. The eight self-report instruments used were The CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey (The CORE Institute at Southern Illinois University – Carbondale (SIUC) Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire Revised AEQ-Adolescent (Brown, S.A., Christiansen, B.A., & Goldman, M.S, 1987 [rev. 10/31/94) ? = .786 Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (Radloff, 1977) ? = .877 Peer Pressure Inventory (Clasen, D. R., & Brown, B. B., 1985) ? = .802 Cultural Congruity Scale (Gloria and Robinson Kurpius, 1996) ? = .675 University Environment Scale (Gloria and Robinson Kurpius, 1996) ? = .739 Collective Self-Esteem (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) ? = .889 The Scale of Anti-Asian American Stereotypes (SAAAS) (Lin, M. H., Kwan, V. S. Y., Cheung, A., & Fiske, S. T., 2005) Socialbility ? = .861 Competence ? = .761 The questionnaire consists of a demographic sheet and eight self-report instruments. The Demographic sheet assesses such items as gender, age, generation status, and parental educational level. The eight self-report instruments used were The CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey (The CORE Institute at Southern Illinois University – Carbondale (SIUC) Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire Revised AEQ-Adolescent (Brown, S.A., Christiansen, B.A., & Goldman, M.S, 1987 [rev. 10/31/94) ? = .786 Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (Radloff, 1977) ? = .877 Peer Pressure Inventory (Clasen, D. R., & Brown, B. B., 1985) ? = .802 Cultural Congruity Scale (Gloria and Robinson Kurpius, 1996) ? = .675 University Environment Scale (Gloria and Robinson Kurpius, 1996) ? = .739 Collective Self-Esteem (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) ? = .889 The Scale of Anti-Asian American Stereotypes (SAAAS) (Lin, M. H., Kwan, V. S. Y., Cheung, A., & Fiske, S. T., 2005) Socialbility ? = .861 Competence ? = .761

13. RQ1: What are the alcohol consumption patterns among Chinese American college students? 5 drinks or more in one sitting 65 = None 16 = Once 8 = Twice 7 = 3 to 5 times 3 = 6 to 9 times 1 = 10 or more Average # of drinks consumed in a week 58 = None 19 = Once 8 = Twice 6 = 3 to 5 times 5 = 6 to 9 times 3 = 10 or more 1 = Missing In last year, how often used alcohol? 21 = did not use 11 = once/year 18 = 6 times/year 12 = once/month 18 = twice/month 12 = once/week 8 = 3 times/week During past 30 days, how many days did you drink? 31 = 0 days 35 = 1-2 days 20 = 3-5 days 9 = 6-9 days 5 = 10-19 days Age first use alcohol M = 17.34 years, SD = 2.58 Range: 6 to 21 years

14. RQ2: What are the differences in alcohol consumption by gender among Chinese American college students? Within the last year, about how often have you used alcohol? Significant gender difference, ?2 (6) = 15.24, p = .018 - Males consumed a considerably more amount of alcohol than females within the time frame of a year.- Males consumed a considerably more amount of alcohol than females within the time frame of a year.

15. During the past 30 days, on how many days did you have alcohol? Significant gender difference ?2 (4) = 11.64 p = .020 RQ2: What are the differences in alcohol consumption by gender among Chinese American college students? - Males consumed a considerably more amount of alcohol than females within the time frame of 30 days.- Males consumed a considerably more amount of alcohol than females within the time frame of 30 days.

16. In the past two weeks, how many times have you had five or more drinks at one sitting? No significant gender difference ?2 (5) = 9.39 p = .095 At what age did you first use alcohol? Males: M = 17.20, SD = 3.07 Females: M = 17.59, SD = 1.89 Not significant gender difference t (78) = -0.66, p = .509. RQ2: What are the differences in alcohol consumption by gender among Chinese American college students?

17. Average # of drinks you consume in a week Significant gender difference ?2 (5) = 14.86 p = .011 RQ2: What are the differences in alcohol consumption by gender among Chinese American college students? Appears that males consume more alcohol. 20 females stated that they did not consume alcohol as opposed to 38 males. Appears that males consume more alcohol. 20 females stated that they did not consume alcohol as opposed to 38 males.

18. RQ3: To what extent do the psychological, social, and cultural factors affect alcohol consumption among Chinese American college students? Conducted separate step-wise regression for males and females DV = Composite alcohol consumption score IVs: depression, tension reduction, peer pressure, model minority stereotype, cultural congruity, university perception, and collective self-esteem Conducted separate step-wise regression for males and females to find which variable was more significant. This is the statistical method to identity significant statistical variables. - The hierarchical regression identities the theoretical ordering - Females no hierarchical because only one significant variable Conducted separate step-wise regression for males and females to find which variable was more significant. This is the statistical method to identity significant statistical variables. - The hierarchical regression identities the theoretical ordering - Females no hierarchical because only one significant variable

19. RQ3: Males The overall model of the model minority stereotype (sociability), university environment, and peer pressure explained 43% of the variance in alcohol consumption, F (3, 49) = 11.71, p = .000. Stereotype of the CA’s social ineptitude was related to higher alcohol consumption, ? = .46, t = 4.12, p = .000. More positive perception of university environment was related to higher alcohol consumption, ? = .34, t = 3.01, p = .004. Higher peer pressure to drink was related to higher alcohol consumption, ? = .28, t = 2.45, p = .018. - For p to be significant it has to be < 0.05 Beta – slope value, measure of the effect , high as positive, if it’s a positive, positive relationship, higher stereotype, higher alcohol - For p to be significant it has to be < 0.05 Beta – slope value, measure of the effect , high as positive, if it’s a positive, positive relationship, higher stereotype, higher alcohol

20. Hierarchical Multiple Regression DV: Alcohol Consumption Step 1 = Stereotype of the CA’s social ineptitude R2 = .193, p = .001 Step 2 = Perception of university environment R2 = .166, p = .001 Step 3 = Peer pressure to drink R2 = .074, p = .018 Stereotype explains 19 percent of variance alcohol consumption among males, 16 percent explains the variance in alcohol consumption, while 7 percent explains the peer pressure For example, for those males who consumed a considerable amount of alcohol in let’s say a fraternity, it was discovered that Chinese American males internalize more of the model minority stereotype as being less socially competent. Due to this internalization of the stereotype, male students may become more influence to drink in order to lower their inhibitions and become considered socially competent by peers. Stereotype explains 19 percent of variance alcohol consumption among males, 16 percent explains the variance in alcohol consumption, while 7 percent explains the peer pressure For example, for those males who consumed a considerable amount of alcohol in let’s say a fraternity, it was discovered that Chinese American males internalize more of the model minority stereotype as being less socially competent. Due to this internalization of the stereotype, male students may become more influence to drink in order to lower their inhibitions and become considered socially competent by peers.

21. The overall model only included tension reduction and explained 9% of the variance in alcohol consumption, F (1, 47) = 4.67, p = .036. Higher reports of tension reduction was related to alcohol consumption, ? = .30, t = 2.16, p = .036.

22. Students who engage in high risk drinking reported an average of 23.9 negative consequences within the past 12 months as a result of drinking and drug use. Compared to an average of 4.8 negative consequences within the past 12 months among students who reported they did not engage in high risk drinking. Students who engage in high risk drinking reported an average of 23.9 negative consequences within the past 12 months as a result of drinking and drug use. Compared to an average of 4.8 negative consequences within the past 12 months among students who reported they did not engage in high risk drinking.

23. Implications UC Irvine has a unique population comprising mostly of Asian Americans, therefore college campuses around the state and nation can conduct research in order to compare the patterns that exist among Chinese Americans Further research can possibly provide within group differences between the different Asian subgroups Reach out to Asian American males because they are more at risk for consuming alcohol Address issues of internalization of the model minority stereotype Provide psycho education, for example, among fraternities

24. Limitations Larger sample size of 300 Age group Snowballing effect Same groups of individuals were answering rather than representatives from different Chinese American academic, social, and religious organizations

25. Dr. Jeanett Castellanos Yong Park Dr. Caesar Sereseres Said Shokair & UROP Leyna Vo All participants Thank You Very Much!

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