Pathogens cause disease
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Pathogens Cause Disease. Being Sick Can Really Get Ya !. Add these terms and definitions to your notes sheet. Immunity- the resistance to a sickness. Infection- When a pathogen invades, multiplies, and causes harm. Disease. Internal Causes. External Causes. Infections by other organisms

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Pathogens Cause Disease

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Pathogens cause disease

Pathogens Cause Disease


Being sick can really get ya

Being Sick Can Really Get Ya!


Add these terms and definitions to your notes sheet

Add these terms and definitions to your notes sheet

  • Immunity- the resistance to a sickness.

  • Infection- When a pathogen invades, multiplies, and causes harm.


Disease

Disease

Internal Causes

External Causes

Infections by other organisms

Environmental factors

Toxic pollutants - Ex: Smog, industrial smoke, cigarette smoke, harmful vapors, vehicle emissions, pesticides

  • Genetic diseases

    • Down’s syndrome

    • Albinism

    • Hemophilia

    • Sickle cell anemia


Pathogens cause disease

Parasites

Microorganisms- Are small organisms that can only be seen with a microscope (viruses are not microorganisms!)

Tapeworm


Any agent any living or nonliving thing that causes disease

Any agent (any living or nonliving thing) that causes disease.


Viruses

Viruses


Viruses1

Viruses

  • **They are NON LIVING**

    • Need a host to reproduce

    • Can not respond to changes in their environment

    • Does not grow

  • Contain genetic material

  • Come in many sizes and shapes

  • Very small, about 1/10,000 bacteria cells


Viruses multiply inside l iving c ells

Viruses Multiply Inside Living Cells

  • Attachment-They attach to a host cell

  • Injection- Injects DNA into a cell

  • Production- Host cell makes copies of virus DNA

  • Assembly- New viruses assemble in cell

  • Release- Cell bursts releasing viruses


Harmful viruses cause huge problems

Harmful Viruses Cause Huge Problems

  • Diseases caused by Viruses

    • Colds

    • AIDS

    • Polio

    • Small Pox

    • Diphtheria

    • Influenza

  • Can affect Plants, Animals, and Bacteria


Viruses and vaccines

Viruses and Vaccines

  • There are no cures for viruses, doctors use vaccines to prevent people from getting sick from harmful viruses.

  • Vaccine- contain small amounts of weakened or dead pathogens that stimulate an immune response.

  • You can be vaccinated at any age and you need to stay up to date on your vaccinations in order to stay protected.


Vaccines

Vaccines


Prevention

Prevention


Viruses2

Viruses


Bacteria

Bacteria


Bacteria1

Bacteria

  • **They are LIVING**

  • Prokaryotic (no nucleus)

  • Unicellular

  • Both autotrophic & heterotrophic

  • Disease causing bacteria are heterotrophic.


Bacteria2

Bacteria

  • Most are helpful (99%) few are harmful (1%)

  • Can be spread through food, water and air

  • Come in three different shapes

    • Spiral shaped

    • Rod shaped

    • Round shaped


Bacteria prevention and cures

Bacteria Prevention and Cures

  • Can be prevented with vaccines and treated with antibiotics.

  • You can prevent the spread of bacteria


Bacteria3

Bacteria


Bacteria vs viruses

Bacteria Vs. Viruses

Bacteria

Viruses

Non-living

Vaccines

Needs a host cell

Harmful and helpful

Smaller then a bacteria

  • Living

  • Vaccines & antibiotics

  • Harmful and helpful

  • Bigger than a virus

  • Has a cell wall


Virus vs bacteria

Virus vs. Bacteria


Fungi

Fungi


Fungi1

Fungi

  • Eukaryotic (has a nucleus)

  • Heterotrophic

  • Unicellular and multicellular

  • Can be helpful and harmful

  • Can be used to make antibiotics

  • Many produce harmful chemicals

  • Can cause disease in humans


Fungal infections

Fungal infections

Ringworm

Ringworm

Athlete’s foot

Under nail fungal infections

Thrush (in babies)

Treatments

Creams and ointments

Antifungal medications


Parasites

Parasites


How parasites are spread

How Parasites Are Spread

  • Insect bites

  • Animal feces

  • Walking barefoot

  • Handling raw meat and fish (not washing after)

  • Eating raw or undercooked pork, beef or fish

  • Eating contaminated raw fruits and vegetables

  • Eating meals prepared by a contaminated person

  • Drinking contaminated water


Examples

Examples

  • Tapeworm

  • Hookworm

  • Lice

  • Malaria

  • Pinworm


Insect bites malaria

Insect bites & Malaria


Prevention1

Prevention

  • Cook food entirely

  • Wash hands after handling raw meats

  • Wash fruits and vegetables

  • Don’t eat sand from sandboxes

  • Make sure water is safe to drink or boil it

  • Wash hands after cleaning kitty litter box


Cancer

Cancer

  • *When your own cells multiply uncontrollably, destroying healthy tissue*

  • Disorder that affects the cell cycle

  • Not a single disorder, rather a group of disorders

  • It is the uncontrolled division of cells

  • Can spread to various tissues, the cells are selfish

  • Cancer cells become “immortal” they continue to divide

  • Most are caused by cell mutations during a persons lifetime

  • Many are caused by harmful chemicals “carcinogens” (ex. nicotine, UV rays, radiation, x-rays)

  • Some inherit a tendency for a particular cancer


Cancer prevention

Cancer Prevention

  • You can reduce the risk of getting a cancerous (malignant) tumor by:

    • Eating a healthy diet

    • Exercising regularly

    • Limiting alcohol

    • Maintaining a healthy weight

    • Minimizing your exposure to radiation and toxic chemicals

    • Not smoking or chewing tobacco

    • Reducing sun exposure, especially if you burn easily

    • Get screenings when possible


Cancer1

Cancer


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