Pathogens cause disease
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Pathogens Cause Disease. Being Sick Can Really Get Ya !. Add these terms and definitions to your notes sheet. Immunity- the resistance to a sickness. Infection- When a pathogen invades, multiplies, and causes harm. Disease. Internal Causes. External Causes. Infections by other organisms

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Pathogens Cause Disease

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Pathogens Cause Disease


Being Sick Can Really Get Ya!


Add these terms and definitions to your notes sheet

  • Immunity- the resistance to a sickness.

  • Infection- When a pathogen invades, multiplies, and causes harm.


Disease

Internal Causes

External Causes

Infections by other organisms

Environmental factors

Toxic pollutants - Ex: Smog, industrial smoke, cigarette smoke, harmful vapors, vehicle emissions, pesticides

  • Genetic diseases

    • Down’s syndrome

    • Albinism

    • Hemophilia

    • Sickle cell anemia


Parasites

Microorganisms- Are small organisms that can only be seen with a microscope (viruses are not microorganisms!)

Tapeworm


Any agent (any living or nonliving thing) that causes disease.


Viruses


Viruses

  • **They are NON LIVING**

    • Need a host to reproduce

    • Can not respond to changes in their environment

    • Does not grow

  • Contain genetic material

  • Come in many sizes and shapes

  • Very small, about 1/10,000 bacteria cells


Viruses Multiply Inside Living Cells

  • Attachment-They attach to a host cell

  • Injection- Injects DNA into a cell

  • Production- Host cell makes copies of virus DNA

  • Assembly- New viruses assemble in cell

  • Release- Cell bursts releasing viruses


Harmful Viruses Cause Huge Problems

  • Diseases caused by Viruses

    • Colds

    • AIDS

    • Polio

    • Small Pox

    • Diphtheria

    • Influenza

  • Can affect Plants, Animals, and Bacteria


Viruses and Vaccines

  • There are no cures for viruses, doctors use vaccines to prevent people from getting sick from harmful viruses.

  • Vaccine- contain small amounts of weakened or dead pathogens that stimulate an immune response.

  • You can be vaccinated at any age and you need to stay up to date on your vaccinations in order to stay protected.


Vaccines


Prevention


Viruses


Bacteria


Bacteria

  • **They are LIVING**

  • Prokaryotic (no nucleus)

  • Unicellular

  • Both autotrophic & heterotrophic

  • Disease causing bacteria are heterotrophic.


Bacteria

  • Most are helpful (99%) few are harmful (1%)

  • Can be spread through food, water and air

  • Come in three different shapes

    • Spiral shaped

    • Rod shaped

    • Round shaped


Bacteria Prevention and Cures

  • Can be prevented with vaccines and treated with antibiotics.

  • You can prevent the spread of bacteria


Bacteria


Bacteria Vs. Viruses

Bacteria

Viruses

Non-living

Vaccines

Needs a host cell

Harmful and helpful

Smaller then a bacteria

  • Living

  • Vaccines & antibiotics

  • Harmful and helpful

  • Bigger than a virus

  • Has a cell wall


Virus vs. Bacteria


Fungi


Fungi

  • Eukaryotic (has a nucleus)

  • Heterotrophic

  • Unicellular and multicellular

  • Can be helpful and harmful

  • Can be used to make antibiotics

  • Many produce harmful chemicals

  • Can cause disease in humans


Fungal infections

Ringworm

Ringworm

Athlete’s foot

Under nail fungal infections

Thrush (in babies)

Treatments

Creams and ointments

Antifungal medications


Parasites


How Parasites Are Spread

  • Insect bites

  • Animal feces

  • Walking barefoot

  • Handling raw meat and fish (not washing after)

  • Eating raw or undercooked pork, beef or fish

  • Eating contaminated raw fruits and vegetables

  • Eating meals prepared by a contaminated person

  • Drinking contaminated water


Examples

  • Tapeworm

  • Hookworm

  • Lice

  • Malaria

  • Pinworm


Insect bites & Malaria


Prevention

  • Cook food entirely

  • Wash hands after handling raw meats

  • Wash fruits and vegetables

  • Don’t eat sand from sandboxes

  • Make sure water is safe to drink or boil it

  • Wash hands after cleaning kitty litter box


Cancer

  • *When your own cells multiply uncontrollably, destroying healthy tissue*

  • Disorder that affects the cell cycle

  • Not a single disorder, rather a group of disorders

  • It is the uncontrolled division of cells

  • Can spread to various tissues, the cells are selfish

  • Cancer cells become “immortal” they continue to divide

  • Most are caused by cell mutations during a persons lifetime

  • Many are caused by harmful chemicals “carcinogens” (ex. nicotine, UV rays, radiation, x-rays)

  • Some inherit a tendency for a particular cancer


Cancer Prevention

  • You can reduce the risk of getting a cancerous (malignant) tumor by:

    • Eating a healthy diet

    • Exercising regularly

    • Limiting alcohol

    • Maintaining a healthy weight

    • Minimizing your exposure to radiation and toxic chemicals

    • Not smoking or chewing tobacco

    • Reducing sun exposure, especially if you burn easily

    • Get screenings when possible


Cancer


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