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RADIATION DETECTION MONITORING DEVICES AND THEIR USE. Module V. Instruments for d etecting and m easuring r adiation. Survey meters Geiger-Mueller (GM) instruments Ionization chamber instruments Scintilation instruments Laboratory counters Personnel dosimeters

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RADIATION DETECTION MONITORING DEVICES AND THEIR USE

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RADIATION DETECTION MONITORING DEVICES AND THEIR USE

Module V


Instruments for detecting and measuring radiation

  • Survey meters

    • Geiger-Mueller (GM) instruments

    • Ionization chamber instruments

    • Scintilation instruments

  • Laboratory counters

  • Personnel dosimeters

    • Photographic film dosimeters

    • Thermoluminescent dosimeters

    • Pocket dosimeters

Module Medical V


Level of radioactive contamination

Radiation dose rate in area

Identity and quantity of radioactive material

Accumulated dose to individuals inarea

Primary use of radiation instrument

Survey meters

Laboratory counters

Personnel dosimeters

Module Medical V


Gas filled detectors

Module Medical V


Geiger-Mueller (GM) instruments

Close-up view of probe Top: shield open

Bottom: shield closed

Module Medical V


Determination of contamination level

G-M survey meter with pancake probe

Module Medical V


Reading scale of GM detector

Module Medical V


How should you monitor?

Module Medical V


Surveying patient using GM counter

Module Medical V


Limitations of GM counters

  • will not detect very low energy betas such as those from tritium

  • may miss alpha contamination if any type of shielding is present, such as gauze, thin layer of blood or more than 5 cm of air

Module Medical V


Alpha monitoring

alpha monitor

Module Medical V


Measurement of radioactivity:well counter

Module Medical V


Radionuclide dose calibrator

Module Medical V


Airborne activity samplers

Module Medical V


Ionization chamber survey meters

Module Medical V


Scintilation detectors

Module Medical V


Scintilation survey meters

Module Medical V


Determination of type and activity of radioactive material

Module Medical V


Crystal scintillation gamma spectroscopy

Module Medical V


Liquid scintillation counting

Module Medical V


In-vivo measurementswhole body counters

Module Medical V


Thyroid uptake detection

Module Medical V


Personnel dosimeters

Electronic dosimeter

Film

badge

TLD

Module Medical V


Advantages

Permanent record

Energy and nature of exposure

Cost

Disadvantages

Energy dependence

Fading

Size

Photographic film dosimeters

Module Medical V


Thermoluminescent dosimeters

Module Medical V


Pocket dosimeters

Module Medical V


Digital pocket dosimeter

Module Medical V


Review points

  • Determination of contamination level often most important measurement in medical emergency setting Usually done with GM probe called pancake detector

  • Identification of radioactive materialtypically done by relatively sophisticated lab equipment (gamma- or alpha-spectrometer) Samples collected from patient or clothing often used for analysis

  • Instruments to measure accumulated dosecommonly referred to as dosimeters, worn by person to measure accumulated individual dose. Two types normally used: direct read-out devices (pocket dosimeters) and indirect TLDs & film badges


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