Omputer omponents
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C. C. omputer omponents. Exit. S. H. software –electronic instructions used to run the computer, also known as programs. hardware –equipment which makes up the computer system such as the monitor, CPU, or printer. Exit. D. ata Cycle. Exit. I. P. S. O.

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Omputer omponents

C

C

omputer omponents

Exit


Omputer omponents

S

H

  • software –electronic instructions used to run the computer, also known as programs.

  • hardware –equipment which makes up the computer system such as the monitor, CPU, or printer.

Exit


Ata cycle

D

ata Cycle

Exit


Omputer omponents

I

P

S

O

Input-putting information

into the computer

Processing-organizing

information

Storage-holds information

until it is needed

Output-allows user to

view or hear information


Input devices

I

Input Devices

  • Mouse

  • Keyboard

  • Scanners

  • Digital Camera

  • Microphone

Equipment used to put information into the computer.

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Omputer omponents

Input Devices

  • keyboard- used to enter text

  • mouse- allows users interact with the computer using clicks and drags.

  • microphone –allows users to record sound and voice data.

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Processing

P

Processing

Puts your information in a usable form.

CPU-Central Processing Unit

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Omputer omponents

Processor

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)-processes and organizes data entered into the computer. It is referred to as the “brains” of the computer.

  • Tower – the enclosure that contains the main components of the computer such as the motherboard, hard drive and power supply.

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Storage

S

Storage

Devices used to store information until it is needed.

  • Hard Drive

  • DVDs

  • CD Rom

  • Flash Drive

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Omputer omponents

Storage Devices

  • hard drive –a storage device built into the CPU. The drive letter is usually C:

  • Jump drive–a portable storage device capable of storing hundreds of floppy disks. The drive letter is usually F:

  • CD – (compact disc) a round shiny disk used to store large amounts of data such as music, text or pictures. The drive letter is usually D:

  • DVD- (digital versatile disc) contains full-length motion pictures

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Output devices

O

Output Devices

  • Printer

  • Monitor

  • Speakers

Equipment used to take information from the computer.

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Omputer omponents

Output Devices

  • printer –an output device which puts data onto paper. The printout is known as a hard copy

  • speakers –an output device which allows users to listen to sound.

  • monitor –a television like output device that allows the user to view data on the screen.

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Omputer omponents

I

P

S

O

Information Data Flow

Exit


Easurements

M

easurements

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Ascii

ASCII

  • ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

  • Information inside a computer is written in binary code using 1’s and 0’s.

  • It takes eight 0’s and 1’s to make a character. Each 0 and 1 takes one bit of memory.

  • Eight bits make One byte the amount of memory needed to store one character.

    (A character is any letter, number, symbol or space.)

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Omputer omponents

Bytes

  • kilobyte – approximately a thousand bytes (1,024 bytes)

  • megabyte – approximately a million bytes (1,048,576 bytes)

  • gigabyte – approximately a billion bytes (1,073,741,824 bytes)

  • terabyte – approximately a trillion bytes (1,099,511,627,776 bytes)

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Omputer omponents

Two Types of Memory

  • RAM-(Random Access Memory) temporary memory used to run software. The amount of memory, determines how fast your programs will operate. If you do not save the data, it will disappear when you turn off the computer.

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Omputer omponents

  • ROM-(Read Only Memory) a permanent type of memory that does not lose information, even when the power is turned off. Once data is programmed into the ROM chip, its contents cannot be altered. For example, information for starting up your computer is stored in ROM.

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Printer quality

Printer Quality

  • dpi – (dots per inch) printer quality is measured by the number of dots which make-up the image. The higher the dpi the more clear the image.

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Types of printers

Types Of Printers

  • Dot matrix-tiny dots on the paper.

    • slow and loud and very low quality

  • Laser jet-sprays ink directly on the paper.

    • ink is still wet and can smear, medium quality

  • Laser-a laser beam and mirror is used to create image. Toner is applied and dried.

    • costly to operate, very fast and produce high quality prints.

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3 functions of a computer

E

F

D

3 functions of a Computer

Even though we think of computers as being “smart” they really only have three main functions.

1-Fetch

2-Decode

3-Execute

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3 functions of a computer1

E

F

D

3 functions of a Computer

etch is responsible for retrieving data from the computer’s memory.

ecode’s job is to read the data and determine what is to be done.

xecute carries out the job, and then the cycle repeats.

A computer carries out these three functions millions of times each second.

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The cold boot process

The Cold Boot Process

When you first turn on the computer, nothing much seems to happen for a few seconds. In fact your computer is performing a set of operations that will check that all the components are working correctly. This operation is called the Power On Self Test or POST. It is the first part of the boot process.

As the POST is doing its job, you will see and hear indications that something is happening… you might see the keyboard lights flash on for a second, you might hear floppy disk drive activity, you may see activity on the monitor. This is because all the system components are being tested, including the CPU, the RAM, and all other components.

If there are any errors or faults found during the POST, you might see error messages on the computer display and hear beeps from the speakers.

If no problems are encountered during the POST, then the Operating System is loaded into memory and the boot process can continue until all systems are operating correctly.

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The cold boot process1

The Cold Boot Process

  • Checks available RAM

  • Checks for and tests hardware

  • Checks for viruses

  • Loads the Operating System

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Omputer omponents

The Operating System (copy what is in pink)

After the start up process is completed the operating system is loaded. The operating system is the master program that runs the computer doing housekeeping tasks, such as input and output between the computer and peripherals, and accepting and interpreting information from the keyboard. DOS and Windows are examples of popular operating systems. It translates your instructions into actions.

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Omputer omponents

User Interface

  • Windows Vista is the operating system used in this lab. Windows is a GUI environment.

  • GUI-graphical user interface allows users to click pictures called 'icons' to communicate with the computer.

  • Icon-a little picture on your screen that you can click on with your mouse. An icon can represent a file, program, peripheral, or tool.

  • Peripheral-any external device that plugs into your computer, such as a printer, modem, scanner, or tape drive.

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