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科技考古学中的年代测定 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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科技考古学中的年代测定. 考古年代学:“时间”的科学;探索古代遗存年代; 时间:物质存在的客观形式之一; 任何一种物质的变化、运动或发展的过程,都永远发生于时间和空间内; 时间有两种含义:一是“时段”,两个瞬时 之间的间隔长短;一是“时刻”,某一瞬时是什么时间; 时间的基本单位: 秒; 使全世界有了统一的标准; 秒: 133 Cs( 铯 ) 原子基态的两个超精细能级间,其跃迁 辐射的 9,192,631,770 个周期所持续的时间; 分、小时,天,周,月,年,世纪;光年?.

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科技考古学中的年代测定

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133Cs()

9,192,631,770


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  • :

  • :

  • :


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  • style

  • association


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  • 1

    2

    3

  • 1

    2

    3


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14C


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  • :

    20A. E. 2000


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  • 10000

  • 8000


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Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon Dating

  • W. F. 194950,000


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1191091069291

1).

(1).

2).

(1)


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3).

4).

5).

()B1B2B3T11T22B1B2B1B2


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6).

(46)-


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  • 1940S.A.Korff

  • 14N14C

    1933F.N.D.Kurie)

  • 14C14CO2)


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  • 14C

  • 14C

  • 14C


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  • 14C


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() 14C

()14C


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  • y= lnNo/lnNx

    No :

    Nx

    =8267


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  • 14C14C14C

  • Nx


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  • Nx

  • 2.5


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  • CH4

  • Nx

  • 5


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  • 7


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  • 70

  • 1978

  • AMS Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

  • 14C


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  • AMS

  • 1-520-50g

  • 101510160.3%18

  • 7.5-10


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1).

14C

14C14C

CO2

(1).

A.

a. 14C/12C14C


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a). CaCO314C14C

b).14C14C

c).

14C14C1


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b.


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c.


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B.

110g100mg

a. 14C

b.

c. 14C14C


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(g)

100

50

200

1000 ()

5002000

100

100

100200

500

500

CO2 110g


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14C

C.


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D.

14C

a.

()()

b.


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14C

c.

14C

d.


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1214CKra(1986)


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(2).

14C

A.

14C()


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()14C

B.

14C(34)104a(12)104a


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14C14C14C


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C.

14C14C14C14C14C


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14C

D.


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14C


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CO214C14C


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E.

14C

F.


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G.

14C14C

(3).

14C14C


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A.

14C


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B. ()


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(Haversian canal)CO214C

C.


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50 2014C

D.


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14C14C


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14C

E.

()()


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14C


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F.

(1)14C 14C


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14C

14C14C

G.

CO2

CO2


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(23)103

CO2

H.

CO2


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I.


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J. CO2

CO2CO214C

a. 14CCO214C

CO2CO214C14CCO2NaOH


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Ba(OH)2Na2CO3(CO2)BaCO3(SrClSrCO2)

CO2

CO2CO214CCO214CCO2 CO2


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CO2

b. CO2HCO3 CO3214C14C

CO2CO2BaCl


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CO2 CO2CO2CO2

c. CO2


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  • 14C

    14C14C

    14C


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  • 14C

  • [xxxx50]

  • 14C55685730

  • 199814C


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  • 14C1950

    14C

  • 18501950CO214C


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14C

1100050000

2

3

4


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14C

4

14C14CC14C


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  • ,14C

  • 14C


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  • H181050--102030


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  • 1920

  • 1986AMS

  • 198814C14C1260-1390

  • 1999


Thermoluminescent dating tl

Thermoluminescent Dating (TL)

:.

11%,5%.


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  • 1960

  • 1979


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40


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/

X


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1

2

3


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  • 1

    2

    35~7


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430~503~56~12

5

6


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  • :

    14C14C

    2000-800014C800014C14C


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  • 2000

    2000~8000

    8000


Archaeomagnetic dating

Archaeomagnetic Dating


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  • 700C


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9

  • 1

    2

    3

  • 7000


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Electron spin resonanceESRElectron paramagnetie resonanceEPRESR

ESR


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ESR


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  • ~


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20

11~29


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  • 10g

  • 10


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  • F[Ca10PO46 F 2]


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Uranium-series dating0.5-50


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238U4.51x109


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(Potassium-argon dating[K/Ar])4040


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t

K40KK

40K

Dt40Ar

Nt40K


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Obsidian hydration dating

D2=Kt

K


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14


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