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科技考古学中的年代测定 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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科技考古学中的年代测定. 考古年代学:“时间”的科学;探索古代遗存年代; 时间:物质存在的客观形式之一; 任何一种物质的变化、运动或发展的过程,都永远发生于时间和空间内; 时间有两种含义:一是“时段”,两个瞬时 之间的间隔长短;一是“时刻”,某一瞬时是什么时间; 时间的基本单位: 秒; 使全世界有了统一的标准; 秒: 133 Cs( 铯 ) 原子基态的两个超精细能级间,其跃迁 辐射的 9,192,631,770 个周期所持续的时间; 分、小时,天,周,月,年,世纪;光年?.

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科技考古学中的年代测定

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133Cs()

9,192,631,770




  • :

  • :

  • :







  • style

  • association


  • 1

    2

    3

  • 1

    2

    3



14C


  • :

    20A. E. 2000




  • 10000

  • 8000



Radiocarbon Dating

  • W. F. 194950,000




1191091069291

1).

(1).

2).

(1)


3).

4).

5).

()B1B2B3T11T22B1B2B1B2


6).

(46)-



  • 1940S.A.Korff

  • 14N14C

    1933F.N.D.Kurie)

  • 14C14CO2)


  • 14C

  • 14C

  • 14C


  • 14C


() 14C

()14C





  • y= lnNo/lnNx

    No :

    Nx

    =8267


  • 14C14C14C

  • Nx


  • Nx

  • 2.5


  • CH4

  • Nx

  • 5


  • 7


  • 70

  • 1978

  • AMS Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

  • 14C


  • AMS

  • 1-520-50g

  • 101510160.3%18

  • 7.5-10


1).

14C

14C14C

CO2

(1).

A.

a. 14C/12C14C


a). CaCO314C14C

b).14C14C

c).

14C14C1


b.


c.


B.

110g100mg

a. 14C

b.

c. 14C14C


(g)

100

50

200

1000 ()

5002000

100

100

100200

500

500

CO2 110g


14C

C.



D.

14C

a.

()()

b.


14C

c.

14C

d.


1214CKra(1986)





(2).

14C

A.

14C()


()14C

B.

14C(34)104a(12)104a


14C14C14C


C.

14C14C14C14C14C


14C

D.


14C


CO214C14C


E.

14C

F.


G.

14C14C

(3).

14C14C


A.

14C


B. ()


(Haversian canal)CO214C

C.


50 2014C

D.


14C14C


14C

E.

()()


14C


F.

(1)14C 14C



14C

14C14C

G.

CO2

CO2


(23)103

CO2

H.

CO2


I.


J. CO2

CO2CO214C

a. 14CCO214C

CO2CO214C14CCO2NaOH


Ba(OH)2Na2CO3(CO2)BaCO3(SrClSrCO2)

CO2

CO2CO214CCO214CCO2 CO2


CO2

b. CO2HCO3 CO3214C14C

CO2CO2BaCl


CO2 CO2CO2CO2

c. CO2


  • 14C

    14C14C

    14C


  • 14C

  • [xxxx50]

  • 14C55685730

  • 199814C


  • 14C1950

    14C

  • 18501950CO214C


14C

1100050000

2

3

4


14C

4

14C14CC14C


  • ,14C

  • 14C


  • H181050--102030


  • 1920

  • 1986AMS

  • 198814C14C1260-1390

  • 1999


Thermoluminescent Dating (TL)

:.

11%,5%.


  • 1960

  • 1979



40




/

X



1

2

3


  • 1

    2

    35~7


430~503~56~12

5

6


  • :

    14C14C

    2000-800014C800014C14C


  • 2000

    2000~8000

    8000


Archaeomagnetic Dating


  • 700C



9

  • 1

    2

    3

  • 7000


Electron spin resonanceESRElectron paramagnetie resonanceEPRESR

ESR


ESR


  • ~


20

11~29


  • 10g

  • 10


  • F[Ca10PO46 F 2]


Uranium-series dating0.5-50


238U4.51x109



(Potassium-argon dating[K/Ar])4040


t

K40KK

40K

Dt40Ar

Nt40K




Obsidian hydration dating

D2=Kt

K


14


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