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שמוליק מרקו PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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הגיאולוגיה של רעידות אדמה. שמוליק מרקו. הרוגי רעידות אדמה כ-10,000 נפש בשנה. כרבע מכלל ההרוגים באסונות טבע. כרבע מכלל ההרוגים באסונות טבע - בגלל רעידות אדמה. eqs. eqs. eqs. eqs. שאלות. מהי רעידת אדמה?

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-10,000


-

eqs

eqs

eqs

eqs


  • ?

  • ? ( , , , , )

  • ?

  • ?

  • ? (: , , , )


1906

California 1906


Elastic Rebound theory

. . .


  • 10



. .


:

X X


Seismic Moment Mo

Mo=mAu

A = Area of fault plane

u = average slip

m = shear modulus

Moment Magnitude Mw

( ):

Mw = 2/3 log10(Mo) - 10.7


  • .

  • .

  • . .

  • .

Epicenter

Hypocenter

()


, 1957


, , 1999


, 1992,



.


P Primary-Pressure WavesS Secondary-Shear WavesSurface (Rayleigh & Love) Waves

~5-8 km/s

~3-5 km/s

~4-6 km/s

:http://www2.wwnorton.com/college/geo/egeo/flash/8_2.swf





P

S

  • :

    -

    -

  • (P) . (S)

Dt


Dt

:

-3 -3


P -S

IST

TEH

GII



CTBT Stations


, .


3 "

S4

S1

S3


Liquefaction

1964


www.iris.edu

http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/epic/epic.html


25


M>7

M>8


  • ,

  • logN=a-bM

    ()=M

    =N

    b~1

    a

Gutenberg-Richter distribution law


-100 .

100

3000

200,000

?


:

'':


:

1759

' 749

1927


:

749


749


1179 "


2

1

60 '

1179 "


: 2.1 '


: 2.1 '

2.1 m

N

N


0.5 m

0.5 '


:

- 20.5.1202 1.6 '

1.6 '


:

2.1 '

- 20.5.1202 1.6 '

0.5 '

- 30.10.1759 0.5 '


1202

1759

:

500 km


.



-


-

Seismite


-

W

E


-18.1.749 . .


Oct. 17, 1989 Loma Prieta


394

56

132

198

284

169

557

78

90

.

31 363

419

551749

10331202

175918371927




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