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שמוליק מרקו PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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הגיאולוגיה של רעידות אדמה. שמוליק מרקו. הרוגי רעידות אדמה כ-10,000 נפש בשנה. כרבע מכלל ההרוגים באסונות טבע. כרבע מכלל ההרוגים באסונות טבע - בגלל רעידות אדמה. eqs. eqs. eqs. eqs. שאלות. מהי רעידת אדמה?

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10 000

-10,000


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-

eqs

eqs

eqs

eqs


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  • ?

  • ? ( , , , , )

  • ?

  • ?

  • ? (: , , , )


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1906

California 1906


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Elastic Rebound theory

. . .


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  • 10


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. .


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:

X X


Seismic moment mo

Seismic Moment Mo

Mo=mAu

A = Area of fault plane

u = average slip

m = shear modulus

Moment Magnitude Mw

( ):

Mw = 2/3 log10(Mo) - 10.7


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  • .

  • .

  • . .

  • .

Epicenter

Hypocenter

()


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, 1957


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, , 1999


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, 1992,


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.


P primary pressure waves s secondary shear waves surface rayleigh love waves

P Primary-Pressure WavesS Secondary-Shear WavesSurface (Rayleigh & Love) Waves

~5-8 km/s

~3-5 km/s

~4-6 km/s

:http://www2.wwnorton.com/college/geo/egeo/flash/8_2.swf


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P

S

  • :

    -

    -

  • (P) . (S)

Dt


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Dt

:

-3 -3


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P -S

IST

TEH

GII


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Ctbt stations

CTBT Stations


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, .


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3 "

S4

S1

S3


Liquefaction

Liquefaction

1964


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www.iris.edu

http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/epic/epic.html


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25


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M>7

M>8


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  • ,

  • logN=a-bM

    ()=M

    =N

    b~1

    a

Gutenberg-Richter distribution law


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-100 .

100

3000

200,000

?


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:

'':


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:

1759

' 749

1927


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:

749


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749


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1179 "


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2

1

60 '

1179 "


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: 2.1 '


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: 2.1 '

2.1 m

N

N


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0.5 m

0.5 '


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:

- 20.5.1202 1.6 '

1.6 '


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:

2.1 '

- 20.5.1202 1.6 '

0.5 '

- 30.10.1759 0.5 '


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1202

1759

:

500 km


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.


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-


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-

Seismite


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-

W

E


18 1 749

-18.1.749 . .


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Oct. 17, 1989 Loma Prieta


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394

56

132

198

284

169

557

78

90

.

31 363

419

551749

10331202

175918371927


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