Neo confucianism as the basis for asian economic growth
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Neo-Confucianism as the Basis for Asian Economic Growth. J.D. Han with Yang Zheng. Confucius . 1. Confucius( 孔子 ) (B.C. 552-479) . His teachings are in “Dialectics (论语 ) ”. Confucius . 1) The Main Difference.

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Neo-Confucianism as the Basis for Asian Economic Growth

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Neo confucianism as the basis for asian economic growth

Neo-Confucianism as the Basis for Asian Economic Growth

J.D. Han with Yang Zheng

Confucius


1 confucius b c 552 479

1. Confucius(孔子)(B.C. 552-479)

His teachings are in

“Dialectics(论语)”

Confucius


1 the main difference

1) The Main Difference

Compared with Western Christianity,the Confucianism is not a religion, but an ethic.

Judgment and morals norm can come from a personhimself,

Ideas come from the Jesus or God or other systems.


2 confucius s core ideas

2) Confucius’s Core Ideas

  • He disliked the society ruled by Laws, Regulations, and Punishments.

  • He believed that the society should be ruled by educated Leaders with a clear sense of Noblesse Oblige devoted to Humanity

    -> ‘Confucian Leadership Model’


1 benevolence

(1) Benevolence

  • The core value of Confucianism is rén (仁).

    - direct translation "benevolence "or Goodness

    - in concrete, it means the virtue of perfectly fulfilling one's responsibilities toward others.


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(2) Justice

  • Yì can be translated as righteousness

  • This is doing the right thing for the right reason.

  • This balances out with Humanity.


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(3) Etiquettes

  • Li,is described by using some forms of the word ‘ritual’, it has also been translated as ‘etiquette' and ‘rules of proper behaviors’.


4 knowledge

(4) Knowledge 智

  • Knowledge or wisdom


6 doctrine of the mean

(6) Doctrine of the Mean 中庸

  • Controllingpleasure, anger, sorrow, or joy, the mind may be said to be in the state of Equilibrium.

  • This comes from the Judgementto keep balance.

  • This leads to the state of Harmony (和).


7 life long learning and practicing

(7) Life-Long Learning andPracticing 学 习

  • Studying/Learning is a life-long process.

  • Leaning is to become a noble person with virtue of noblis = ‘Philosopher’ of Plato

  • Emphasizes “Practicing what is learned”

    -> Noble persons rule and lead

    -> ‘Phlisopher King’ of Plato


How did they work to be the system of institutions

How did they work to be the System of Institutions?

  • Leaders are to be Educated, Ethical, Benevolent Philosophers

  • Education + Bureaucrat Exam + Meritocracy provide competition for leadership

  • Members of each level of society follow the leaders without conflicts


Philosopher leader versus petty person

Philosopher Leader versus Petty Person

  • Virtue = Noblesse Oblige makes the difference

    - Continuous selection/refinement is needed.

  • Revolution against Petty Leaders is justified

Educated People

Philosopher Leaders

Petty Persons


Comparisons

Comparisons

  • Comparable to Plato’s “Philosopher King” in his Republic

  • Philosopher Leaders are to be devoted to Humanity, and Justice for members.

    -> Ground for political legitimacy

    -> Benevolent Dictatorship, not Democracy

    -> Efficient and effective.


2 changes in confucianism

2. Changes in Confucianism

  • What the Confucius said has not changed, but its Interpretation has changed.


Evolution

Evolution

  • Original Confucianism preceded the inflow of Buddhism in China from India

  • Confucianism became Tools for Oppression by the Han Dynasty.》

    -> Feudalistic Confucianism.

  • Oppressed people relied more and more on Buddhism and Taoism

  • With the challenge of Buddhism, Confucianism was innovated into Neo-Confucianism in the Song Dynasty(


3 the innovation of neo classical confucianism

3. The Innovation of Neo-Classical Confucianism

  • Ethical Aspect

    - Reemphasizing Humanity

    - Open up a possible Reform


1 zhu xi

1) Zhu Xi(朱喜)

founder ofNeo-Confucianism in Song Dynasty (A.D 960–1279)

He pushes Confucianism to a higher state, which make it become a Confucianism development milestone of the history


Main concept

Main Concept

  • Li (lĭ) is a concept found in Neo-Confucian Chinese philosophy. It’s the principle that is in everything and governs the universe. Each person has a perfect li.

  • Individuals should act perfectly moral

  • It may be translated as rational principle or rationality


His achievements

His Achievements

  • He added metaphysical dimensions (ideas from Taoism and Buddhism) into Confucianism.

  • Reemphasizing Cultivation of Mind( 心学 ), Ethic(道学), and Innovation (维新)

  • extending this Personal Ethic to Social Philosophy and National Religion.


2 huang zongxi 1610 95 95

2) Huang Zongxi (黄宗羲 1610-95)95)

  • Huang was notable for being one of the first Neo-Confucians to stress the need for constitutional law and considered as the father of the Enlightenment -> China’s Rousseau

  • “Light Recessed, and Waiting for the Dawn”(明夷待访录) was a summary of ideas about political reform.

  • The political tract begins with a condemnation of selfish autocratic rule, and declares that the world should belong to the people


3 kang youwei 1875 1927

3) Kang Youwei(康有为 1875-1927)

  • He argued for the combination of

    Western Technology (西器)

    + Chinese Neo-Confucianism (东道)

    + Socialist Communism

  • Emperor’s tutor; Constitutional Monarchist;

  • Neo-Confucian Reformer (孔子改制考)


4 tu weiming 1940

4) Tu Weiming (杜維明 1940-)

  • Professor of Harvard University

  • Sponsored by Prime Minister Li Kwan Yew of Singapore

  • He argued that Neo-Confucianism is conducive for personal edification as well as Economic Growth

  • Neo-Confucian Leadership is essential for Economic Growth


Confucianism economy

* Confucianism + Economy

  • Confucianism for Modesty, Thrifty

    -> Savings and Investment

  • Confucianism for Enlightenment

    -> Education and Human Capital

  • Confucianism for Order, Harmony, Doctrine of the Mean

    -> Social Capitial


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  • Confucianism for Self-Edifying, Virtue, Noblesse-Oblige

    -> Governance: Minimum Transactions Cost and Maximum Leadership

    -Collectivism vs Individualism

    Example: Li Jiacheng ; The Li Ka Shing Foundation

    To date, the sponsorships and commitments approx.$ 990 million

    - Doctrine of the Mean in Business Competition

    Stress to moderate and response. Appeal greatly and together and save small difference, oppose competing excessively


4 neo confucianism in east asia

4. Neo-Confucianism in East Asia

  • Neo-Confucianism spread to Korea and Japan

  • In Korea and Japan, People have various religions, but regard Neo-Confucianism as the guiding ethical principle for personal, family, society, and national levels.

  • In China, there was a period of official suspension of Confucianism between 1949-1980s, which is followed by a revival of Confucianism.


J d han with yang zheng

1) Neo-Confucian Experience in Japan


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Neo-Confucianism transplanted to Business

= Zaibatsu

-> Modern Keiretsu in Japan

-> Chaebols in Korea


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History

15th Shogunate (德川庆喜) resigned his position

November 9, 1867

Boshin War

January, 1868

Edo Period

(Tokugawa

Shogunate)

(德川幕府)

Meiji Era

Meiji Restoration (明治维新)


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Meiji Restoration Reformers

were Samurai class backed up

by Neo-Confucians.


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Policies

  • State Leadership: Uphold the Emperor, and Strengthen the army and Enrich the Nation (富国强兵)

  • Economic Development by the State Leader ship

  • Education: Compulsory Education

  • Open Up to World for Trade and Technology


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Japanese government needed

New Class of Entrepreneurs.

Samurai-turned-into-Businessman


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Why reformed Samurai?

— Traditional warrior class was detrimental to Social Stability and Industrialization; had to be

disarmed.

— Still, well-Educated, noble Samurai Spirit/Patriotism may be put into use


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Modern Japanese Neo-Confucian System

Entrepreneurs

(Zaibatsu)

Noble People

Government

Education

Profit

Society


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Pre-WW II Zaibatsu

Mitsubishi

Mitsui

Sumitomo

Yasuda


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* Mitsubishi

- One of the Major Zaibatsu

— Established in 1870 by Iwasaki (Yotaro 岩崎 弥太郎)

— closely related to Meiji Restoration and State Leadership

— Now: Mitsubishi Bank

Mitsubishi Corporation

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries


Post ww ii keiretsu

Post WW II Keiretsu

  • Horizontal Keiretsu

    Mitsubishi

    Mitsui

    Sumitomo

    Fuyo

    Sanwa

    Daichi Kangyo

  • Vertical Keiretsu

    Toyota

    Nissan

    Honda

    Daihatsu

    Isuzu

    --------

    Hitachi

    Toshiba

    Sanyo

    Matsushita

    Sony


2 korea

2) Korea

  • Chaebol:

    -LG; Samsung; Hyundai; Daewoo; Hanhwa

    -Neo-Confucian organization and operation

    - Effective and efficient in Korean social context


3 in china

3) In China

  • This idea deviates China's focus from economic growth to overall societal balance.

  • Hu-Wen New Administration

    President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao have adopt more reform-oriented and more open-minded policy.

    Premier Wen always wear a overcoat which has ten year history.


Future of neo confucianism

Future of Neo-Confucianism

  • China may unite the East Asia with the doctrine of Neo-Confucianism.

  • Hu-Wen government of China supports studies and spread of Neo-Confucianism.


5 conclusion

5. Conclusion

Not all Confucianism is conducive for Innovative Society, and Neo-Confucianism is.

The essence of Neo-Confucianism is Ethic of Humanity.

<- comparable with Protestant Ethic

Ethic of Humanity is conducive for Accumulation of Human Capital, Social Capital, and Government Leadership.


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