Neo confucianism as the basis for asian economic growth
Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 40

Neo-Confucianism as the Basis for Asian Economic Growth PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 95 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Neo-Confucianism as the Basis for Asian Economic Growth. J.D. Han with Yang Zheng. Confucius . 1. Confucius( 孔子 ) (B.C. 552-479) . His teachings are in “Dialectics (论语 ) ”. Confucius . 1) The Main Difference.

Download Presentation

Neo-Confucianism as the Basis for Asian Economic Growth

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Neo-Confucianism as the Basis for Asian Economic Growth

J.D. Han with Yang Zheng

Confucius


1. Confucius(孔子)(B.C. 552-479)

His teachings are in

“Dialectics(论语)”

Confucius


1) The Main Difference

Compared with Western Christianity,the Confucianism is not a religion, but an ethic.

Judgment and morals norm can come from a personhimself,

Ideas come from the Jesus or God or other systems.


2) Confucius’s Core Ideas

  • He disliked the society ruled by Laws, Regulations, and Punishments.

  • He believed that the society should be ruled by educated Leaders with a clear sense of Noblesse Oblige devoted to Humanity

    -> ‘Confucian Leadership Model’


(1) Benevolence

  • The core value of Confucianism is rén (仁).

    - direct translation "benevolence "or Goodness

    - in concrete, it means the virtue of perfectly fulfilling one's responsibilities toward others.


(2) Justice

  • Yì can be translated as righteousness

  • This is doing the right thing for the right reason.

  • This balances out with Humanity.


(3) Etiquettes

  • Li,is described by using some forms of the word ‘ritual’, it has also been translated as ‘etiquette' and ‘rules of proper behaviors’.


(4) Knowledge 智

  • Knowledge or wisdom


(6) Doctrine of the Mean 中庸

  • Controllingpleasure, anger, sorrow, or joy, the mind may be said to be in the state of Equilibrium.

  • This comes from the Judgementto keep balance.

  • This leads to the state of Harmony (和).


(7) Life-Long Learning andPracticing 学 习

  • Studying/Learning is a life-long process.

  • Leaning is to become a noble person with virtue of noblis = ‘Philosopher’ of Plato

  • Emphasizes “Practicing what is learned”

    -> Noble persons rule and lead

    -> ‘Phlisopher King’ of Plato


How did they work to be the System of Institutions?

  • Leaders are to be Educated, Ethical, Benevolent Philosophers

  • Education + Bureaucrat Exam + Meritocracy provide competition for leadership

  • Members of each level of society follow the leaders without conflicts


Philosopher Leader versus Petty Person

  • Virtue = Noblesse Oblige makes the difference

    - Continuous selection/refinement is needed.

  • Revolution against Petty Leaders is justified

Educated People

Philosopher Leaders

Petty Persons


Comparisons

  • Comparable to Plato’s “Philosopher King” in his Republic

  • Philosopher Leaders are to be devoted to Humanity, and Justice for members.

    -> Ground for political legitimacy

    -> Benevolent Dictatorship, not Democracy

    -> Efficient and effective.


2. Changes in Confucianism

  • What the Confucius said has not changed, but its Interpretation has changed.


Evolution

  • Original Confucianism preceded the inflow of Buddhism in China from India

  • Confucianism became Tools for Oppression by the Han Dynasty.》

    -> Feudalistic Confucianism.

  • Oppressed people relied more and more on Buddhism and Taoism

  • With the challenge of Buddhism, Confucianism was innovated into Neo-Confucianism in the Song Dynasty(


3. The Innovation of Neo-Classical Confucianism

  • Ethical Aspect

    - Reemphasizing Humanity

    - Open up a possible Reform


1) Zhu Xi(朱喜)

founder ofNeo-Confucianism in Song Dynasty (A.D 960–1279)

He pushes Confucianism to a higher state, which make it become a Confucianism development milestone of the history


Main Concept

  • Li (lĭ) is a concept found in Neo-Confucian Chinese philosophy. It’s the principle that is in everything and governs the universe. Each person has a perfect li.

  • Individuals should act perfectly moral

  • It may be translated as rational principle or rationality


His Achievements

  • He added metaphysical dimensions (ideas from Taoism and Buddhism) into Confucianism.

  • Reemphasizing Cultivation of Mind( 心学 ), Ethic(道学), and Innovation (维新)

  • extending this Personal Ethic to Social Philosophy and National Religion.


2) Huang Zongxi (黄宗羲 1610-95)95)

  • Huang was notable for being one of the first Neo-Confucians to stress the need for constitutional law and considered as the father of the Enlightenment -> China’s Rousseau

  • “Light Recessed, and Waiting for the Dawn”(明夷待访录) was a summary of ideas about political reform.

  • The political tract begins with a condemnation of selfish autocratic rule, and declares that the world should belong to the people


3) Kang Youwei(康有为 1875-1927)

  • He argued for the combination of

    Western Technology (西器)

    + Chinese Neo-Confucianism (东道)

    + Socialist Communism

  • Emperor’s tutor; Constitutional Monarchist;

  • Neo-Confucian Reformer (孔子改制考)


4) Tu Weiming (杜維明 1940-)

  • Professor of Harvard University

  • Sponsored by Prime Minister Li Kwan Yew of Singapore

  • He argued that Neo-Confucianism is conducive for personal edification as well as Economic Growth

  • Neo-Confucian Leadership is essential for Economic Growth


* Confucianism + Economy

  • Confucianism for Modesty, Thrifty

    -> Savings and Investment

  • Confucianism for Enlightenment

    -> Education and Human Capital

  • Confucianism for Order, Harmony, Doctrine of the Mean

    -> Social Capitial


  • Confucianism for Self-Edifying, Virtue, Noblesse-Oblige

    -> Governance: Minimum Transactions Cost and Maximum Leadership

    -Collectivism vs Individualism

    Example: Li Jiacheng ; The Li Ka Shing Foundation

    To date, the sponsorships and commitments approx.$ 990 million

    - Doctrine of the Mean in Business Competition

    Stress to moderate and response. Appeal greatly and together and save small difference, oppose competing excessively


4. Neo-Confucianism in East Asia

  • Neo-Confucianism spread to Korea and Japan

  • In Korea and Japan, People have various religions, but regard Neo-Confucianism as the guiding ethical principle for personal, family, society, and national levels.

  • In China, there was a period of official suspension of Confucianism between 1949-1980s, which is followed by a revival of Confucianism.


1) Neo-Confucian Experience in Japan


Neo-Confucianism transplanted to Business

= Zaibatsu

-> Modern Keiretsu in Japan

-> Chaebols in Korea


History

15th Shogunate (德川庆喜) resigned his position

November 9, 1867

Boshin War

January, 1868

Edo Period

(Tokugawa

Shogunate)

(德川幕府)

Meiji Era

Meiji Restoration (明治维新)


Meiji Restoration Reformers

were Samurai class backed up

by Neo-Confucians.


Policies

  • State Leadership: Uphold the Emperor, and Strengthen the army and Enrich the Nation (富国强兵)

  • Economic Development by the State Leader ship

  • Education: Compulsory Education

  • Open Up to World for Trade and Technology


Japanese government needed

New Class of Entrepreneurs.

Samurai-turned-into-Businessman


Why reformed Samurai?

— Traditional warrior class was detrimental to Social Stability and Industrialization; had to be

disarmed.

— Still, well-Educated, noble Samurai Spirit/Patriotism may be put into use


Modern Japanese Neo-Confucian System

Entrepreneurs

(Zaibatsu)

Noble People

Government

Education

Profit

Society


Pre-WW II Zaibatsu

Mitsubishi

Mitsui

Sumitomo

Yasuda


* Mitsubishi

- One of the Major Zaibatsu

— Established in 1870 by Iwasaki (Yotaro 岩崎 弥太郎)

— closely related to Meiji Restoration and State Leadership

— Now: Mitsubishi Bank

Mitsubishi Corporation

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries


Post WW II Keiretsu

  • Horizontal Keiretsu

    Mitsubishi

    Mitsui

    Sumitomo

    Fuyo

    Sanwa

    Daichi Kangyo

  • Vertical Keiretsu

    Toyota

    Nissan

    Honda

    Daihatsu

    Isuzu

    --------

    Hitachi

    Toshiba

    Sanyo

    Matsushita

    Sony


2) Korea

  • Chaebol:

    -LG; Samsung; Hyundai; Daewoo; Hanhwa

    -Neo-Confucian organization and operation

    - Effective and efficient in Korean social context


3) In China

  • This idea deviates China's focus from economic growth to overall societal balance.

  • Hu-Wen New Administration

    President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao have adopt more reform-oriented and more open-minded policy.

    Premier Wen always wear a overcoat which has ten year history.


Future of Neo-Confucianism

  • China may unite the East Asia with the doctrine of Neo-Confucianism.

  • Hu-Wen government of China supports studies and spread of Neo-Confucianism.


5. Conclusion

Not all Confucianism is conducive for Innovative Society, and Neo-Confucianism is.

The essence of Neo-Confucianism is Ethic of Humanity.

<- comparable with Protestant Ethic

Ethic of Humanity is conducive for Accumulation of Human Capital, Social Capital, and Government Leadership.


  • Login