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premier. TO OBSERVE ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF CHEMISTRY-CLIMATE INTERACTIONS. Presentation at the SPARC SSG meeting by Michaela I. Hegglin (University of Toronto, Canada) on behalf of: PREMIER Mission Advisory Group (MAG):

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TO OBSERVE ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF CHEMISTRY-CLIMATE INTERACTIONS


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Presentation at the SPARC SSG meeting by Michaela I. Hegglin (University of Toronto, Canada) on behalf of:

PREMIER Mission Advisory Group (MAG):

Michaela HegglinUniversity of Toronto, Canada

Brian Kerridge Rutherford-Appleton Lab, UK

Jack McConnell York University, Canada

Donal MurtaghChalmers University, Sweden

Johannes OrphalKIT, Germany

Vincent-Henri PeuchMeteo-France, France

Martin RieseFZJ, Germany

Michiel van WeeleKNMI, Netherlands

ESA Science Coordinator: Jörg Langen

ESA Technical Coordinator: Bernardo Carnicero-Dominguez

Science Team

Candidate ESA Explorer Mission PREMIER


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ESA’s Living Planet Programme

Earth Explorer

Earth Watch

Research driven

Operational Service driven

Opportunity Missions

Core Missions

Meteorology w. Eumetsat

GMES

Sentinel 1

GOCE

Launched

17/3/09

CryoSat 2

2010

Meteosat

MSG

EPS (MetOp)

MTG

Post EPS

Sentinel 2

Sentinel 3

Sentinel 4

Sentinel 5

ADM-Aeolus

2011

SMOS

2009

EarthCARE

2013

Swarm

2010

?

EE 8

2017

?

EE 7

2016

www.esa.int/livingplanet


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24

Call for Ideas

6

ESAC Recommendation / PB-EO Selection

Mission Assessment Groups / Phase 0

Reports for Assessment

User Consultation Meeting

ESAC Recommendation / PB-EO Selection

Step 3:

Mission Feasibility

(Phase A)

BIOMASS

  • 2009-2010

3

Mission Advisory Groups / Phase A

CoReH2O

Reports for Mission Selection

PREMIER

User Consultation Meeting

ESAC Recommendation / PB-EO Selection

Implementation

7th Earth Explorer Mission: Steps to Launch

Step 1:

Call and selection

  • March - July 2005

  • May 2006

  • Spring 2007 - 2008

Step 2:

Mission Assessment

(Phase 0)

  • Autumn 2008

  • 20-21 January 2009

  • February 2009

  • 2011

  • 2012-2016

Step 4:

Implementation

(Phases B1, B2, C/D, E1)

1


Scientific justification

Scientific justification

Atmospheric composition changes are driving climate change

Direct radiative forcing by trace gases & aerosol

Indirect effects through chemistry and aerosol-cloud interactions

Feedbacks via water vapour, cloud & trace gases


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UTLS transport

The distribution of the radiatively active species O3 and H2O is determined by transport and dehydration processes on multiple time and length scales.


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Water vapour

Ozone

Methane

24 km

Pressure (hPa)

~6 km

Tropopause

Surface temperature sensitivity / unit mass change [relative scale]

Radiative impact of composition changes

P. Forster, RAF 2008

  • Changes in the UTLS have a large impact on surface temperature.

  • Region of particular sensitivity is between 500-50 hPa.

  • Depends on opacity and thermal structure.


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PREMIER = PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation

Mission objectives:

  • To investigate processes controlling global atmospheric composition in the mid/upper troposphere and lower stratosphere; a complex region of particular importance for climate.

    • by resolving 3-D structures of trace gases, thin cirrus and temperature in this region on finer scales than has previously been possible from space

  • To study links with surface emissions and pollution.

  • by exploiting synergies with nadir-sounders on EPS-MetOp

  • PREMIER will quantify:

  • Relationship between atmospheric composition and climate.

  • Atmospheric transport processes important to climate and air quality.

  • Relationship between atmospheric dynamics and climate.


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Observation technique

Innovation: PREMIER provides horizontal sampling comparable to a nadir sounder!

  • Nadir-sounding

  • Near-surface layer seen

  • between clouds but

  • Little or no vertical resolution

  • Limb-emission sounding

  • High res. vertical profiling

  • Tenuous trace gases detectable

  • Day- and nighttime observations

  • Dense coverage cf solar occultation

EPS MetOp

PREMIER


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PREMIER satellite instruments

  • mm-Wave Limb-Sounder (MWLS / STEAMR)

    • Heterodyne multibeam receiver, 1.5-2 km sampling

    • 310-360 GHz

    • similar to instrument on Odin, but optimized for UT

  • IR Limb-Sounder (IRLS) incl. cloud-imager

    • Imaging Fourier spectrometer, MIPAS-like

    • 770 – 1650 cm-1

    • spectral sampling 0.2 / 1.25 / 10 cm-1

    • vertical sampling 2.0 / 0.5 / 0.5 km

  • Orbit:

    • sun-synchronous, 817 km, LTDN 9.30h

    • 8 min ahead of MetOp to provide link to lower troposphere

  • Measured species:

    • T, H2O, O3, CH4, PAN, CFC-11, CO, C2H6, HNO3, cirrus clouds


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mm-wave

IR – 12mm

Probability [%] of transmittance > 55%

-50 0 50Latitude / oN

-50 0 50Latitude / oN

Synergies between IRLS and MWLS(in sounding the troposphere)

  • IRLS / MWLSobservations to low altitudes controlled by clouds / water vapour.

  • Higher probability for IRLS / MWLSto propagate down in the extra-tropics / tropics.


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Observational requirements

  • Altitude range: 5 - 55 km with global coverage.

  • Minimum of a 4-year mission period.

  • Near real-time observations of multiple trace gases (and clouds) at high 3D-resolution.

Typhoon Winnie (20/08/97)

Modes:

Dynamics:

0.5 km x 25 km x 50 km

Chemistry:

2.0 km x 80 km x 100 km

Clouds :

0.5 km x 4 km x 8 km

PREMIER

IRLS dynamics

Typhoon

MIPAS


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Convective uplift in the Indian monsoon

GEMS CH4 – Aug to Oct 2003

Height of

1.9 ppmv

18km

0 km

  • Biogenic emissions from Bangladesh wetlands are lofted into the region

  • important to climate by convection in monsoon circulation

  • Structure in the 3-D distribution can affect methane global radiative forcing


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GEMS

IRLS

IRLS+IASI

IASI

Retrieval Simulations for PREMIER IRLS and IASI

  • PREMIER captures the structure of the plume in the UTLS.

  • IASI extends coverage into the lower troposphere i.e. below the limb-range.


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Retrieval simulations for PREMIER

HCN – Model

CO – Model

CH3OH – Model

Plumes over

Atlantic from

S.American

biomass-burning

CO – MWLS

HCN – MWLS

CH3OH – IRLS

Plume seen

well by IRLS

Plume seen

well by MWLS

  • PREMIER will observe ozone precursors (eg CO & CH3OH) & indicators of biomass burning (e.g. HCN) in individual plumes from tropical burning, boreal forest fires and industrial emissions.

  • PREMIER will allow us to study long-range transport of such pollution plumes.


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3-D temperature structure produced by gravity waves(Retrieval simulation for PREMIER IRLS)

Altitude (km)

Gravity waves

initiated by

flow over

Mountains in

South America

Wave vector

Latitude (deg)

Locations of

COSMIC

Profiles

for whole day

Longitude (deg)

Longitude (deg)

  • Across-track sampling by PREMIER IRLS (dynamics mode) will add the 3rd dimension

    • Wavelength & propagation direction will be determined unambiguously for the first time

    • Major advance on COSMIC & HiRDLS in quantifying gravity wave vertical momentum

      fluxes and their parameterisation in climate models


International context

International context

No other mission with capabilities comparable to PREMIER will be launched for at least another decade. Missions under discussion are:

NASA/CSA: CASS

CSA: STEP

ALTIUS (Belgian mission)

NASA: GACM

NASA: ALICE

In addition to meeting its research objectives, PREMIER will

complement nadir observations from operational satellites

meet global height-resolved monitoring requirements (which will otherwise not be met) for GCOS, WMO/IGACO, GEOSS/CEOS ACC, GMES


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Summary and status

  • For the first time, 3D-distributions of various atmospheric variables will be observed from space in the height range most important to climate.

  • The high resolution observations will allow a better quantification and characterization of the complex dynamical and chemical processes in the UTLS.

  • PREMIER will help to establish a comprehensive data base for model validation and development. Particularly important in the light of:

  • The integration of tropospheric and the stratospheric models.

  • Increased resolution of CCMs and CTMs within the next few years.

  • Implementation of cloud resolving models.

  • Therefore useful for SPARC/IGAC (CCMVal, AC&C, Gravity-wave initiative)

  • PREMIER will contribute to global height-resolved monitoring and operational applications in mission time-frame (feeds into WMO/UNEP, IPCC & WCRP).

  • Development schedule is compatible with launch during 2016 as Earth Explorer 7 (PREMIER assessment report).

  • Selection of one of the candidate missions for implementation by ESA in early 2011 (after user consultation meeting in late 2010).


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  • The vertical distribution of ozone is expected to change strongly due to climate change.

  • The stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone flux in the NH is predicted to increase substantially

  • In the SH, the signal is dominated by ozone depletion and recovery

O3

CMAM simulations from Hegglin & Shepherd (Nature Geosci., 2009)


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