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Test Reviews. Wed. Dec. 1 11:00 am 363 MARB Wed. Dec. 1 4:00 pm C254 ESC Thurs. Dec. 2 3:30 pm 363 MARB Thurs. Dec. 2 5:30 pm C460 ESC Fri. Dec. 3 10:00 am 115 MCKB Fri. Dec. 3 12:00 pm C261 ESC. Things to do as we approach the end of the semester.

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Test reviews
Test Reviews

  • Wed. Dec. 1 11:00 am 363 MARB

  • Wed. Dec. 1 4:00 pm C254 ESC

  • Thurs. Dec. 2 3:30 pm 363 MARB

  • Thurs. Dec. 2 5:30 pm C460 ESC

  • Fri. Dec. 3 10:00 am 115 MCKB

  • Fri. Dec. 3 12:00 pm C261 ESC


Things to do as we approach the end of the semester
Things to do as we approach the end of the semester

  • Do the course evaluation online for PS 110A.

  • Turn in Lab 11 by 2pm Tuesday

  • Turn in Lab 12 by 2 pm Tuesday

  • Pick up homework etc. from the boxes in the lab.

  • Make sure you check your scores and grades. Correct any problems by sending me an email.


Exam 3
Exam 3

Exam starts Monday, December 6 and ends Wednesday, December 8 at 4:00 pm.

The Periodic Table of the Elements will be attached to the exam.

Chapters 17-23


Question 1
Question 1

  • Consider an operating air conditioner in a closed room, not vented to the outside.

  • What will happen to the temperature of the room?

  • Explain the energy transfers.

  • How does this resemble a refrigerator with the door open?


Question 2
Question 2

  • How does the law of increasing disorder apply to the cooling process of a refrigerator?

  • (a) There is no violation of the Law of Increasing Disorder because a heat flow from a cold region to a hot region represents an increase of disorder.

  • (b) Refrigerators violate the Law of Increasing Disorder because a heat flow from a cold region to a hot one represents a decrease of disorder.

  • (c) All the energy that leaves the cold region shows up in the hotter region, and therefore there is no change of disorder.

  • (d) It is true that the heat flow from the cold region to the hotter region decreases disorder, but this is made up for by increasing the disorder of the energy from another source.

  • (e) The Law of Increasing Disorder is not involved in this situation because the Law of Increasing Disorder does not apply to heat flow.


Question 3
Question 3

  • Which of the following represents the most ordered form of energy:

    • (a) chemical potential energy

    • (b) internal electrical energy

    • (c) macroscopic kinetic energy

    • (d) nuclear potential energy

    • (e) thermal energy in the air in a room

    • Now choose most disordered.


Question 4
Question 4

  • Why must gasoline engines be less than 100% efficient?


Question 5
Question 5

  • Which of the following processes is closest to an ideal reversible process?

  • (a) two cars colliding.

  • (b) using a toaster to make toast.

  • (c) a pendulum swinging without friction.

  • (d) a ripe peach rotting.

  • (e) an ice cube melting in a glass of warm water.


Question 6
Question 6

  • In an irreversible process, the overall amount of entropy

    • a) stays the same

    • b) decreases

    • c) increases

    • d) is zero

    • e) becomes infinite


Question 7
Question 7

  • List the following atoms in order of increasing diameter: nitrogen, oxygen, sodium

    A. N O Na

    B. N Na O

    C. Na N O

    D. Na O N

    E. O N Na


Question 8
Question 8

  • How many atoms of carbon are there in each molecule of methane that has the formula CH4

  • a) 1

  • b) 2

  • c) 5

  • d) 7


Question 9
Question 9

  • Disorder remains the same in

  • a) high temperature processes

  • b) irreversible processes

  • c) reversible processes

  • d) processes that release chemical energy

  • e) none of these


Question 10
Question 10

  • Which type of bonding is the strongest?

  • a) covalent bonding

  • b) hydrogen bonding

  • c) dispersion forces

  • d) dipole-dipole interactions


Question 11
Question 11

  • In which of the following processes does entropy remain virtually unchanged?

  • a) a man diving into a swimming pool

  • b) water falling down Niagra falls and becoming turbulent water at the base of the falls

  • c) scrambling eggs

  • d) a pendulum swinging in a frictionless environment

  • e) toxic waste polluting a lake


Question 12
Question 12

  • Pure water has a pH of

  • a) 0

  • b) 1

  • c) 7

  • d) 14

  • e) 100

  • Which is a very strong acid?

  • Which is a very strong base?


Question 14
Question 14

  • Which of the following is not correct for ionic compounds?

  • a) Their bonds arise from electrostatic interactions.

  • b) Their energy levels are widely spaced.

  • c) Their crystals are brittle.

  • d) Their charge carriers are very mobile.

  • e) Their crystals are often transparent to visible light.


Question 15
Question 15

  • Which one of these chemical reactions is balanced correctly?

    • a) Mg + N2 MgN3

    • b) Zn +O2 2ZnO

    • c) N2 + 3H2 2NH3

    • d) Na + O2 NaO3

    • e) KClO3 KCl + O2


Question 16
Question 16

  • The octet rule relates to

  • a) s and d electrons

  • b) s and p electrons

  • c) p and d electrons

  • d) f electrons


Question 17
Question 17

  • In semiconductors, which property of the materials affects electronic transfer across the gap?

  • a) density

  • b) pressure

  • c) brittleness

  • d) temperature


Question 18
Question 18

  • The correct formula for potassium sulfide is

  • a) K2S

  • b) KS

  • c) KS2

  • d) KS3

  • e) K2S3


Question 19
Question 19

  • Which of the following sets of room-temperature characteristics best describe the element Pt

    • a) Solid metal

    • b) Nobel gas

    • c) Liquid metal

    • d) Solid nonmetal

    • e) Gaseous nonmetal (but not a noble gas)


Question 20
Question 20

  • A metallically bonded substance consists of

  • a) molecules bound together by dipole forces

  • b) individual atoms that are free to move throughout the solid

  • c) a network of atoms bound to each other


Question 21
Question 21

  • What is the oxidation state of iron (Fe) in Fe2O3?

    • a) -2

    • b) -1

    • c) +1

    • d) +2

    • e) +3


Question 22
Question 22

  • Which of the following types of materials exhibits a small gap between electronic bands of levels?

  • a) salts

  • b) organic compounds

  • c) metals

  • d) semiconductors


Question 23
Question 23

  • The number of covalent bonds for a hydrogen gas molecule is

  • a) 1

  • b) 2

  • c) 3

  • d) 4

  • e) 5


Question 24
Question 24

  • Write the names of the following compounds:

    • CrO

    • b) CrO3

    • c) Cr2O3

    • d) N2O (laughing gas)

    • e) SO3


Question 25
Question 25

  • Which of the following atoms is easiest to ionize

  • a) aluminum

  • b) boron

  • c) argon

  • d) cesium

  • e) fluorine


Question 26
Question 26

  • If strontium (Sr) and bromine (Br) form a compound, which of the following characteristics will it show?

    • a) brittle, transparent, electrically non-conducting solid

    • b) electrically conducting, metallic alloy

    • c) colored gas

    • d) malleable solid with a dull finish

    • e) rubbery solid that sparkles


Question 27
Question 27

  • No process can occur in which the total effect results in heat flowing from a cooler object to a hotter object because

  • a) it would violate the law of conservation of energy

  • b) it would violate the law of increasing disorder

  • c) it would violate the law of conservation of linear momentum

  • d) it would violate the law of conservation of charges

  • e) it would violate the law of conservation of mass


Question 28
Question 28

  • If aluminum (Al) and sulfur (S) combine to form a compound, one would expect the compound to be:

    • a) AlS

    • b) Al2S

    • c) AlS2

    • d) Al2S3

    • e) Al3S2


Question 29
Question 29

  • When combining with nonmetals, metals tend to

  • a) lose electrons

  • b) gain electrons

  • c) share electrons

  • d) keep the same number of electrons

  • e) do more than one of the above items


Question 30
Question 30

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is analyzed in a mass spectrometer. What are the masses of the fragments that probably show up in the display?

  • Hint:

  • O=C=O


Question 31
Question 31

  • Which one of these nonmetals will react most vigorously with metals?

  • a) boron

  • b) fluorine

  • c) nitrogen

  • d) neon

  • e) sulfur

  • f) oxygen


Question 32
Question 32

  • Which one of the following is true for an apple growing on a tree?

  • a) The total order in the universe remains unchanged.

  • b) The order in the apple itself is decreasing, and the order in its environment is increasing by the same amount.

  • c) The order in the apple is increasing, and its environment’s order is decreasing by the same amount.

  • d) The decrease in the environment’s order is greater than the increase in the apple’s order.

  • e) None of these.


Question 33
Question 33

  • The mass of a sodium (Na) atom in atomic mass units is 23. The atom has

    • a) 23 protons

    • b) 23 neutrons

    • c) 23 electrons

    • d) 12 neutrons

    • e) 11 neutrons


Question 34
Question 34

  • What characteristics would you find for nichrome (an alloy of nickel and chromium)?

  • a) electrically conducting, metallic solid

  • b) opaque gas

  • c) transparent gas

  • d) brittle, electrically non-conducting solid

  • e) transparent liquid


Question 35
Question 35

  • Nitrogen forms the gas N2. Decide how many covalent bonds are between the two atoms.

    • a) single bond

    • b) double bond

    • c) triple bond

    • d) quadruple bond

    • e) shared metallic bond


Question 36
Question 36

  • How many valence electrons does sodium have?

  • a) 11

  • b) 1

  • c) 2

  • d) 23

  • e) 12

  • g) 0


Question 37
Question 37

  • Which of the following is not chemically similar to Cl?

    • a) Br

    • b) F

    • c) I

    • d) At

    • e) Na


Question 38
Question 38

  • Salts are generally

  • a) brittle

  • b) opaque

  • c) electrically conducting when solid

  • d) of low melting point


Question 39
Question 39

  • Which of the following are not common properties of metals?

  • a) poor thermal conductors

  • b) good electrical conductors

  • c) light does not pass through them

  • d) can be hammered into then sheets without shattering

  • e) highly reflective


Question 40
Question 40

  • Which one of the following is not a mixture?

  • a) sodium chloride

  • b) salt and pepper

  • c) a solution of alcohol in water

  • d) brass

  • e) carbonated drinks


Question 42
Question 42

  • Which of the following is an element?

    • a) water

    • b) carbon dioxide

    • c) RNA

    • d) chlorine gas

    • e) 2-methyl isothiouronium iodide


Question 43
Question 43

  • Which of the following sets of room-temperature characteristics best describes mercury?

  • a) solid metal

  • b) noble gas

  • c) liquid metal

  • d) solid nonmetal

  • e) liquid nonmetal

  • f) gaseous nonmetal


Question 44
Question 44

  • The element barium has an atomic number of 56. From its position in the Periodic Table, we can infer that

  • a) barium is a nonmetal

  • b) barium has a principle oxidation number of -2

  • c) barium forms a compound with chlorine that has the formula BaCl2

  • d) barium has 56 valence electrons

  • e) the valence electrons of barium are in p-type orbitals


Question 45
Question 45

  • What is the correct formula for potassium sulfate?

  • (The sulfate ion is SO42–)

  • a) K2SO4

  • b) KSO4

  • c) K(SO4)2

  • d) K(SO4)3

  • e) K2(SO4)3


Question 46
Question 46

  • Which of the following are not true about catalysts?

  • a) Catalysts speed up reactions

  • b) Catalysts are used up during the course of a reaction.

  • c) Catalysts only work on reactions which break up large molecules.

  • d) a) and c)

  • e) b) and c)


Question 47
Question 47

  • An atom of uranium has a mass number of 238 and an atomic number of 92. In other words, it has

  • a) 92 neutrons

  • b) 92 protons and 238 neutrons

  • c) 92 protons and 146 neutrons

  • d) 238 protons and 92 neutrons

  • e) 238 protons and 238 electrons


Question 48
Question 48

  • In some liquid fueled rockets, liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen react to form gaseous steam (H2O) and a great deal of energy is given off to propel the rocket.

  • a) The reaction is favored from both an energy and an entropy perspective.

  • b) The reaction is not favored from either an energy or an entropy perspective.

  • c) The reaction is favored from an energy perspective, but not an entropy perspective.

  • d) The reaction is favored from an entropy perspective, but not an energy perspective.


Question 49
Question 49

  • A particular type of chlorine atom has a mass number of 35. The chlorine ion for this atom, found in the blood, is formed when the atom gains an electron. This chlorine ion has

  • 18 electrons

  • 18 protons

  • 16 electrons

  • 17 neutrons

  • 36 electrons


The last two
The last two:

  • Why is salt a conductor of electricity when you melt it, but sugar is not?

  • Does covalent bonding allow the formation of the ion SO42- ?


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