creating protecting and using crop biotechnologies worldwide in an era of intellectual property
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Creating, Protecting, and Using Crop Biotechnologies Worldwide in an Era of Intellectual Property. Philip G Pardey. Professor of Science and Technology Policy Department of Applied Economics WIPO-UPOV Symposium, Geneva, October 24, 2003. Location of Agricultural R&D.

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creating protecting and using crop biotechnologies worldwide in an era of intellectual property

Creating, Protecting, and Using Crop Biotechnologies Worldwide in an Era of Intellectual Property

Philip G Pardey

Professor of Science and Technology Policy

Department of Applied Economics

WIPO-UPOV Symposium, Geneva, October 24, 2003

location of agricultural r d
Location of Agricultural R&D

Public and Private Ag. R&D, 1995

$33.2 billion

Developed 64%

Developing 36%

Bioengineered Crop Trials

11, 523 trials

us pvp applicants
US PVP Applicants

Data from 1971 to end of 2002

freedom to operate and ldc research
Freedom to Operate and LDC Research
  • Increasing number and breadth of IPRs
    • Concerns of a “lock out” phenomenon
  • Extent of exclusionary rights determined by
    • Jurisdictional limitations on IP and the location of R&D
    • Bilateral South-North trade patterns
ip economics
IP Economics
  • Appropriability and the incentive to invent
  • The social contract
    • Circumscribed exclusionary rights for public disclosure
  • Static costs of patents
    • Transitory– for the life of the patent
  • Cumulative innovation processes and dynamic costs
total agricultural r d worldwide 1995
Total Agricultural R&D Worldwide, 1995

Total - $33.2 billion

$10.2 billion

$11.5 billion

Public

Public

Developing

Developed

Private

Private

$0.7 billion

$10.8 billion

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