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Microbiology 221. Professor Patricia Sidelsky Spring 2007. Contact information. Email – [email protected] Web Page – http://chsweb.lr.k12.nj.us/psidelsky The Bioweb – Link for 221 web page. Text Book. Microbiology - Principles and Explorations 6th Edition Jacquelyn Black.

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Microbiology 221

Microbiology 221

Professor Patricia Sidelsky

Spring 2007


Contact information
Contact information

  • Email – [email protected]

  • Web Page – http://chsweb.lr.k12.nj.us/psidelsky

  • The Bioweb – Link for 221 web page


Text book
Text Book

  • Microbiology - Principles and Explorations

    6th Edition

  • Jacquelyn Black


Challenge of microbes

Methicillin

resistant - Staphyococcus aureus

Challenge of Microbes






Microbiology the study of microbes
Microbiology- The study of microbes

  • Bacteria

  • Fungi

  • Viruses

  • Protists



Viruses obligate cellular parasites
Viruses – obligate cellular parasites

  • Nucleic acid

  • Protein capsid or outer covering

  • Require a cell to complete life cycle

  • Dependent upon cellular machinery

Influenza


Viroids
Viroids

  • Nucleic acid without a protein coat


Prions
Prions

  • Infectious protein particles

  • Produce Mad Cow disease

  • Replicate independently


The three domains
The Three Domains

  • Bacteria

  • Archaea

  • Eukarya

  • The trypanosomes

    that cause Sleeping

    Sickness


Bacteria
Bacteria

  • Include pathogens as well as beneficial bacteria

E. coli


Bacteria1
Bacteria

  • Prokaryote cells

  • Cell walls – protecting the exterior

  • No nuclear membrane

  • No organelles

  • 1 ds circular DNA( may be more than one and also may be linear)



Archaea
Archaea

  • Unusual biochemistry

  • Many are extremophiles adapted to extremes ofenvironmental conditions

  • Prokaryote cells

  • Differ from the biochemistry and genetics of bacteria



Eukarya
Eukarya

  • Eukaryote cells with nuclear membrane

  • Linear ds chromosomes

  • Organelles

  • Internal cell compartments


Fungi
Fungi

Candida

Aspergillus


Protists
Protists

  • Earliest eukaryote cells

  • Form the basis for the development of multicellular organisms

  • Ancestors of today’s plants, animals, and fungi


Protist parasites
Protist Parasites

  • To 5mm for the Protists such as Plasmodium, the causative agent of Malaria


Protist parasites1
Protist Parasites

  • Trypanosomes – Injected into humans and wildlife by the bite of the TseTse fly.


Microbiology pioneers francesco redi
Microbiology Pioneers – Francesco Redi

  • Disproved Spontaneous generation

  • Life comes only from life



Louis pasteur
Louis Pasteur

  • Pasteurization of milk

  • Idea of airborne pathogens

  • Isolated silkworm disease

  • Rabies and cholera

  • Yeasts and wine




Robert koch
Robert Koch

  • German physician

  • Culture of microbes( agar)

  • Tuberculosis

  • Malaria

  • Typhoid fever



Koch s postulates1
Koch’s Postulates

  • The organism must be found in all animals suffering from the disease, but not in healthy animals.

  • The organism must be isolated from a diseased animal and grown in pure culture.

  • The cultured organism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy animal.

  • The organism must be reisolated from the experimentally infected animal.


Semmelweis
Semmelweis

  • Puerperal fever – Childbed fever

  • Washing hands before surgery



Lister
Lister

  • Applied carboxylic acid to reduce surgical infection

  • Ridiculed and ignored

  • Had an immediate effect upon surgical success.

  • In 1870 Lister's antiseptic methods were used, by Germany, during the Franco-Prussian war saving many Prussian soldier's lives. In Germany, by 1878, Robert Koch was demonstrating the usefulness of steam for sterilizing surgical instruments and dressings.



Edward jenner and immunity
Edward Jenner and Immunity

  • Smallpox was a scourge in Europe

  • Deadly and disfiguring

  • Jenner noticed that milk maidsss who got cowpox did not get small pox



Vaccination
Vaccination

  • Vaccinated his child with the exudate from a cowpox blister

  • His child did not get smallpox

  • He later inoculated his son with smallpox and the boy remained health


Elie metchnikoff
Elie Metchnikoff

  • Cellular response of immunity

    ( macrophages)


Paul ehrlich
Paul Ehrlich

  • Developed a treatment for syphilis

  • Also tested and modified a treatment for sleeping sickness

  • Coined the word chemotherapy

  • Directed treatment against a disease


Alexander fleming
Alexander Fleming

  • The concept of antibiotic

  • Penicillium mold inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus bacteria in culture



Penicillin
Penicillin

  • Howard Florey developed the drug pencillin. The first miracle drug

  • Reduced infections such as “ blood poisoning” – systemic bacterial infectons


Howard florey
Howard Florey

  • Purification of the extract from the mold to produce a safe therapeutic dose


Gerhard domagk
Gerhard Domagk

  • The development of sulfanilamide and isoniazid


Selman waksman
Selman Waksman

  • Coined the work antibiotic to describe actinomycin and other products that he isolated from soil

  • Streptomycin – treatment for TB

  • Chlaramphenicol


Sydney brenner
Sydney Brenner

  • Recombinant DNA

  • Genetic engineering


Bonnie bassler
Bonnie Bassler

  • Bacteria speech

  • Quorum sensing


Karl stetter
Karl Stetter

  • Extremophiles

  • Unique prokaryotes

  • Hyperthermophiles


Carl woese
Carl Woese

  • The Tree of Life

  • Three Domains



Tullis onstott
Tullis Onstott

  • Oligotrophs – prokaryotes that survive with minimal nutrients

  • Life in the depths of the earth

  • Geomicrobiology

  • The Mars Mission


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