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Microbiology 221. Professor Patricia Sidelsky Spring 2007. Contact information. Email – [email protected] Web Page – http://chsweb.lr.k12.nj.us/psidelsky The Bioweb – Link for 221 web page. Text Book. Microbiology - Principles and Explorations 6th Edition Jacquelyn Black.

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Microbiology 221

Microbiology 221

Professor Patricia Sidelsky

Spring 2007

Contact information
Contact information

  • Email – [email protected]

  • Web Page – http://chsweb.lr.k12.nj.us/psidelsky

  • The Bioweb – Link for 221 web page

Text book
Text Book

  • Microbiology - Principles and Explorations

    6th Edition

  • Jacquelyn Black

Challenge of microbes


resistant - Staphyococcus aureus

Challenge of Microbes

Microbiology the study of microbes
Microbiology- The study of microbes

  • Bacteria

  • Fungi

  • Viruses

  • Protists

Viruses obligate cellular parasites
Viruses – obligate cellular parasites

  • Nucleic acid

  • Protein capsid or outer covering

  • Require a cell to complete life cycle

  • Dependent upon cellular machinery



  • Nucleic acid without a protein coat


  • Infectious protein particles

  • Produce Mad Cow disease

  • Replicate independently

The three domains
The Three Domains

  • Bacteria

  • Archaea

  • Eukarya

  • The trypanosomes

    that cause Sleeping



  • Include pathogens as well as beneficial bacteria

E. coli


  • Prokaryote cells

  • Cell walls – protecting the exterior

  • No nuclear membrane

  • No organelles

  • 1 ds circular DNA( may be more than one and also may be linear)


  • Unusual biochemistry

  • Many are extremophiles adapted to extremes ofenvironmental conditions

  • Prokaryote cells

  • Differ from the biochemistry and genetics of bacteria


  • Eukaryote cells with nuclear membrane

  • Linear ds chromosomes

  • Organelles

  • Internal cell compartments





  • Earliest eukaryote cells

  • Form the basis for the development of multicellular organisms

  • Ancestors of today’s plants, animals, and fungi

Protist parasites
Protist Parasites

  • To 5mm for the Protists such as Plasmodium, the causative agent of Malaria

Protist parasites1
Protist Parasites

  • Trypanosomes – Injected into humans and wildlife by the bite of the TseTse fly.

Microbiology pioneers francesco redi
Microbiology Pioneers – Francesco Redi

  • Disproved Spontaneous generation

  • Life comes only from life

Louis pasteur
Louis Pasteur

  • Pasteurization of milk

  • Idea of airborne pathogens

  • Isolated silkworm disease

  • Rabies and cholera

  • Yeasts and wine

Robert koch
Robert Koch

  • German physician

  • Culture of microbes( agar)

  • Tuberculosis

  • Malaria

  • Typhoid fever

Koch s postulates1
Koch’s Postulates

  • The organism must be found in all animals suffering from the disease, but not in healthy animals.

  • The organism must be isolated from a diseased animal and grown in pure culture.

  • The cultured organism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy animal.

  • The organism must be reisolated from the experimentally infected animal.


  • Puerperal fever – Childbed fever

  • Washing hands before surgery


  • Applied carboxylic acid to reduce surgical infection

  • Ridiculed and ignored

  • Had an immediate effect upon surgical success.

  • In 1870 Lister's antiseptic methods were used, by Germany, during the Franco-Prussian war saving many Prussian soldier's lives. In Germany, by 1878, Robert Koch was demonstrating the usefulness of steam for sterilizing surgical instruments and dressings.

Edward jenner and immunity
Edward Jenner and Immunity

  • Smallpox was a scourge in Europe

  • Deadly and disfiguring

  • Jenner noticed that milk maidsss who got cowpox did not get small pox


  • Vaccinated his child with the exudate from a cowpox blister

  • His child did not get smallpox

  • He later inoculated his son with smallpox and the boy remained health

Elie metchnikoff
Elie Metchnikoff

  • Cellular response of immunity

    ( macrophages)

Paul ehrlich
Paul Ehrlich

  • Developed a treatment for syphilis

  • Also tested and modified a treatment for sleeping sickness

  • Coined the word chemotherapy

  • Directed treatment against a disease

Alexander fleming
Alexander Fleming

  • The concept of antibiotic

  • Penicillium mold inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus bacteria in culture


  • Howard Florey developed the drug pencillin. The first miracle drug

  • Reduced infections such as “ blood poisoning” – systemic bacterial infectons

Howard florey
Howard Florey

  • Purification of the extract from the mold to produce a safe therapeutic dose

Gerhard domagk
Gerhard Domagk

  • The development of sulfanilamide and isoniazid

Selman waksman
Selman Waksman

  • Coined the work antibiotic to describe actinomycin and other products that he isolated from soil

  • Streptomycin – treatment for TB

  • Chlaramphenicol

Sydney brenner
Sydney Brenner

  • Recombinant DNA

  • Genetic engineering

Bonnie bassler
Bonnie Bassler

  • Bacteria speech

  • Quorum sensing

Karl stetter
Karl Stetter

  • Extremophiles

  • Unique prokaryotes

  • Hyperthermophiles

Carl woese
Carl Woese

  • The Tree of Life

  • Three Domains

Tullis onstott
Tullis Onstott

  • Oligotrophs – prokaryotes that survive with minimal nutrients

  • Life in the depths of the earth

  • Geomicrobiology

  • The Mars Mission